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The Solar System

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Robert Nelson

on 8 October 2018

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Transcript of The Solar System

The Solar System
The Solar


The Solar System is made up of the sun, 8 planets and 3 dwarf planets.
The Sun is the star for this solar system. It is classified as a G2 star.
It is an average main sequence star. With a surface temperature of 5800K
The Sun has a diameter of 1,390,000 km.
The Sun has 99.8% of the mass of the whole solar system.
It is made of 73.5% hydrogen, 25% helium and 1.5% carbon & oxygen.
Mercury has a rotation period of 58.6 Earth Days
It also has a revolution period of 87.97 Earth Days
The gravity of Mercury is 0.38 that of Earth
Nobody knows who discovered it, it has been known
for thousands of years.
The highest surface temperature is 700K or 427C
The lowest surface temperature is 100K or -173C
Mercury has no atmosphere, but hydrogen and helium are present
Mercury's name originates from the Roman messenger of the gods.
Mercury has no moons
Its orbital distance is 0.3871 A.U. or 57 million km from the sun
The Sun
The Gallilean Moons
Named after the king of the Roman gods
and Patron of the Roman State.
Largest planet in our solar system
Jupiter's Orbit is 5.2 AU or 778 million km from the sun.
Jupiter's year is 11.86 Earth Years
Jupiter's day is 9.8 hours
Jupiter has been known since ancient times.
The gravity of Jupiter is 2.53 that of Earth
Jupiter has 68 moons, including 4 large moons.
Io is the most volcanically active object in the solar system.
Europa appears to have a liquid ocean under the ice crust.
Callisto has the most cratered surface.
Venus is named after the Roman Goddess of Beauty
It is 0.783 AU or 108.2 Million kilometers from the sun
It has been known since ancient times
Venus is unique in that it rotates backwards or retrograde
Venus' year is 224.7 Earth days
However, Venus' day is 243 Earth days!
That makes the day 18.3 days longer than its year!
Venus has no moons
Venus is the Earths twin in size only.
It is 95% the size of the Earth and its gravity is 0.91
Venus has a thick atmoshpere
The atmosphere is made of Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen and Sulfuric Acid
The atmosphere causes a runaway greenhouse effect
The temperature is 740k or 467c!
Venus has had several probes visit it.
From the United States, was Magellan
From the Soviet Union (Russia) was the entire Venera Series which consisted of about 20 probes.
The name "Earth" is derived from the latin word "Terra", the greek word "Gaia" and the germain "etho". A pagan German goddess.
The Earth is 1 AU or 149.6 million kilometers from the sun.
The Earth's day is 24 hours and its year is 365.25 Earth days
It has one moon, called the Moon.
The gravity on Earth is 1.0
The Earth's atmosphere contains nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and argon
The high temperature can reach 330k or 57c
The low temperature can reach 184k or -89c
Many probes have studied the Earth....
LandSAT satellites took pictures of the Earth to gauge the impact of humans on the environment.
The shuttles did experiments and studied the Earth from low orbit.
Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) is currently orbiting the Earth and studying it from orbit.
The martian year is 1.88 Earth years or 686.98 Earth days
Its day is 24 hours 37.5 minutes
Mars has been known since ancient times
Mars' atmoshpere consists of Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen,
Argon and traces of Oxygen.
The atmosphere is thin (like being at 150,000 feet on Earth).
The temperature of Mars range from a high of 308k or 35c to
a low of 130k or -143c.
Some of the probes to Mars include...
Mars Science Laboratory; Phoenix; Mars Express; Spirit; Opportunity;
Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder and currently Curiosity.
They have shown that there once was a warm ocean on the surface of Mars and there is liquid water on the surface in isolated areas.
Mars' two moons are Phobos and Deimos
They are names of some of the horses of the apocalypse.
The solar system formed when a nebula condensed about 4.5 billion years ago.
The innermost dwarf planet.
Named after the roman goddess of the harvest and growing plants.
The day on Ceres is 9.07 hours.
Ceres orbits the sun once every 4.6 Earth Years
Ceres was discovered in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi in Italy
Orbit distance is 2.76AU or 414.7 million kilometers
Ceres has a diameter of approximately 950km.
Gravity on Ceres is 0.028
Ceres has no moons.
It is thought Ceres may have a weak atmosphere
Hi temp is 239k or -31c
Low temp is 167k or -106c
There is currently 1 probe orbiting Ceres.
The probe is called DAWN.
Ganymede is Jupiter's largest moon.
It is larger than Pluto and Mercury.
Jupiter's atmosphere consists of 90% Hydrogen and 10% Helium
The temperature at the cloud tops is 120k or -153c
The atmosphere has a unique storm called the Great Red Spot.
Jupiter has a faint ring system that can be seen in the sunlight.
They are made of faint particles of dust and ice.
Jupiter has had several probes visit it or fly by it.
Voyager's 1 and 2, Pioneer 10 and 11, Galileo and Cassini.
Mercury has had two probes fly by it.
They were Mariner 10 and Messenger.
Saturn is 9.588 AU or 1.427 billion km from the sun.
It is named after the Roman god of agriculture.
A year on Saturn is 29.46 Earth years.
A day on Saturn is 10.32 hours
It has been known for thousands of years.
Saturns gravity is 1.07
It's density is less than water.
It could float on water.
The Saturn Moons
Saturn has 62 official moons.
It includes Titan, the largest moon in the solar system.
Saturn's atmosphere consists of 75% Hydrogen and 25% Helium with traces of water, methane and ammonia.
The temperature at the cloud tops is 88k or -185c
Saturn's rings are the most developed in the solar system. They are made of Ice and dust up to meters in diameter
If they were made into a ball it would measure 100km across.
Several probes have been sent to Saturn.
These include Pioneer 11, Voyager 1 & 2, and Cassini-Huygens.
The Huygens probe landed on Titan and took measurements and pictures.
Uranus orbits at 19.19AU or 2.871 billion km from the sun.
Uranus is named after the greek god of the heavens
Uranus orbits the sun once every 84.07 Earth Years.
A day on Uranus is 17.9 hours.
Uranus was discovered by William Herschell in England in 1781
Uranus's gravity is 0.92
Uranus is the only planet to spin on its side and retrograde.
Uranus has 27 moons. Named after characters in William Shakespeare's plays.
The most interesting is Miranda which was broken apart
and went back together.
The atmoshpere of Uranus contains 83% Hydrogen, 15% helium and 2% methane
Uranus is blue because of the methane
The temperature at the cloud tops is 59k or -214c
Uranus has the second most developed ring system.
They are made of rock and ice pieces
Uranus has had 1 probe visit it and that was Voyager 2
Neptune orbits the sun at 30.06AU or 4.497 billion km
It is named after the roman god of the sea.
It is the farthest planet from the sun.
Neptune takes 164.82 Earth years to revolve around the sun.
A day on Neptune is 18.48 hours.
Neptune was discovered by Johann Gottfried Galle in Germany in 1848.
The gravity of Neptune is 1.18
Neptune has 13 moons.
The largest Triton has nitrogen volcanoes.
The atmosphere of Neptune contains 74% hydrogen, 25% helium and 1% methane.
Neptune is blue because of the methane.
Neptune has the fastest winds in the solar system.
The temperature of the cloud tops is 48k or -225c
Neptune has a primitive ring system.
They are called ring arcs
Some are twisted around each other.
Pluto orbits the sun at 39.53AU or 5.913 billion km
It is a dwarf planet
It was named after the roman god of the underworld
It takes Pluto 248.6 Earth years to orbit the sun.
A pluto day is 6.387 Earth days or 153.3 hours long.
Pluto was discovered by Percival Lowell and Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 in the USA
Pluto has a gravity of 0.063
Pluto has 5 moons.
The names are Charon, Nix, Hydra, Styx and Kerberos
Pluto seems to have a seasonal atmosphere.
It appears to be made of nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide.
Pluto's temperature is 38k or -235c
New Horizons arrived in July 2015 and has sent back many photos and scientific measurements.
The name Mars comes from the Roman god of war.
Mars is 1.5237AU or 227.9 million kilometers from the sun.
Gravity is .38 that of Earth
Neptune has only had 1 probe Voyager 2.
Eris orbits the sun at 67.95 AU's or 10.1 billion km.
It is a dwarf planet.
It is named after the Greek goddess of strife and discord
A Erisian year is 561.4 Earth Years.
Its day is 25.9 hours.
It was discovered by Mike Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David Rabinowitz in 2005 in the USA.
Eris has 1 moon named Dysnomnia.
Gravity on Eris is 0.084
The maximum temperature is 55K or -218C
The minimum temperature is 30K or -243C
Eris may have a seasonal methane atmosphere.
There are currently no plans to send a probe to Eris
Other Dwarf Planets include Haumea and Makemake
This Saturn moon has liquid water under its ice crust and it is leaking out into space.
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