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Architectural Styles

Exploring the historic architectural designs of Ancient Greek/Roman, Gothic and Deconstructive structures

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of Architectural Styles


DATE: September 13, 2013
CREATED BY: Vikki Machado
TOPICS: Ancient Greek/Roman, Gothic, Deconstructive
More About Gothic Design
Starting from 1200AD Gothic architecture became very familiar with the rebellion against the Roman Empire through the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. It is also the architectural design of many historical castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings.
Historic Influence
The term "Gothic architecture" originated as a pejorative description.

'The Goths' were responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, and erecting new ones in this style.
A Roman Catholic church in Hamilton, Ontario Canada. The Cathedral was consecrated on December 19, 1933. It is the seat of the Bishop of the Diocese of Hamilton, and the cathedral of the Diocese of Hamilton.

The cathedral's interior is pure 13th Century English Gothic. Two kinds of limestone grace its walls and pillars: Indiana Limestone and Ontario Credit Valley Limestone. Its vaulted ceiling, with gold bosses,

What known structure is it today?...
More About Deconstructive Design
What if you took all of the elements of a building, hacked them apart and put them back together again without apparent rhyme or reason? That’s basically the visual effect of Deconstructivism.
Historic Influence
It is influenced by the theory of "Deconstruction", which is a form of semiotic analysis.

Some architects associated with Deconstructivism have distanced themselves from it. Nonetheless, the term has stuck and has come to embrace a general trend within contemporary architecture.
What happened to Frank Gehry? Some call it a midlife crises, others chalk it up to a moment of revelation. Whatever occurred, this rather conventional middle-aged architect changed virtually overnight into an avante garde designer and created what is arguably the most influential residence of the 20th Century.

Deconstructivism now pervades the field of architecture and has influenced virtually every contemporary all-star architect in the world. Gehry is perhaps best known for his curvy, metalic wave-form museums in Bilbao, Seattle, Los Angeles and Minneapolis, but it all started with strange impulses applied to his own traditional little Santa Monica house in the late 1970s.
Society @ The Time
As time moves on, so do styles fashion, technology and architecture. While everything improves, the utensils used to design new items, structures and what not increases broadening our scope of curiosity. Eventually, designs will be influenced by specific historic eras while still in the present. To bring back what once was is more complex when using the resources and technology available currently.
Ancient Greek/Roman Era
Ancient Greece was an ancient civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Included in Ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership.
A situation unlike that in most other contemporary societies, which were either tribal, or kingdoms ruling over relatively large territories. Initially many Greek city-states seem to have been petty kingdoms; there was often a city official carrying some residual, ceremonial functions of the king. Only free, land owning, native-born men could be citizens entitled to the full protection of the law in a city-state. In most city-states, unlike the situation in Rome, social prominence did not allow special rights. Sometimes families controlled public religious functions, but this ordinarily did not give any extra power in the government.

Ancient Greek mathematics contributed many important developments to the field of mathematics, they also developed astronomy, which they treated as a branch of mathematics.In the West, the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models.

Greek mythology consists of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their religious practices.Unlike in Greek mythology, Romans believed the gods were not personified, but were vaguely defined sacred spirits called numina. Romans also believed that every person, place or thing had its own genius, or divine soul

The civilization of ancient Greece has been immensely influential on language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, and the arts. many factors and aspects of western civilization are all inherited from Roman advancements. Society then was based on one's class in the social ladder.

Ancient Rome boasted impressive technological feats, using many advancements that were lost in the Middle Ages and not rivaled again until the 19th and 20th centuries. Many practical Roman innovations were adopted from earlier Greek designs.
Gothic Era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence for Britain. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities and political concerns to the passage of the Reform Act 1832. The era was preceded by the Georgian period and followed by the Edwardian period. Gothic Revival architecture became increasingly significant during the period due to the fact that culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and the arts. In international relations the era was a long period of peace, known as the Pax Britannica, and economic, colonial, and industrial consolidation, temporarily disrupted by the Crimean War in 1854

Trains became another important factor ordering society, with "railway time" being the standard by which clocks were set throughout Britain. Steam ships such as the SS Great Britain and SS Great Western made international travel more common but also advanced trade, so that in Britain it was not just the luxury goods of earlier times that were imported into the country but essentials and raw materials such as corn and cotton from the United States and meat and wool from Australia. One more important innovation in communications was the Penny Black, the first postage stamp, which standardized postage to a flat price regardless of distance sent.

Even later communication methods such as cinema, telegraph, telephones, cars and aircraft, had an impact. Photography was realized in 1839.

Industrialization brought with it a burgeoning middle class whose increase in numbers had a significant effect on the social strata itself: cultural norms, lifestyle, values and morality. Identifiable characteristics came to define, in particular, the middle class home. Previously, in town and city, residential space was adjacent to or incorporated into the work site, virtually occupying the same geographical space. The difference between private life and commerce was a fluid one distinguished by an informal demarcation of function.
Deconstructivist Era
Postmodernism is a term which describes the postmodernist movement in the arts, its set of cultural tendencies and associated cultural movements. It is in general the era that follows Modernism. It frequently serves as an ambiguous overarching term for skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is often associated with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thought.

The movement of Postmodernism began with architecture, as a response to the perceived blandness, hostility, and Utopianism of the Modern movement. Modern Architecture, as established and developed by people such as Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and Philip Johnson, was focused on the pursuit of a perceived ideal perfection, and attempted harmony of form and function, and dismissal of "frivolous ornament."

Postmodernism is a rejection of 'totality', of the notion that planning could be 'comprehensive', widely applied regardless of context, and rational. In this sense, Postmodernism is a rejection of its predecessor: Modernism. From the 1920s onwards, the Modern movement sought to design and plan cities which followed the logic of the new model of industrial mass production; reverting to large-scale solutions, aesthetic standardization and prefabricated design solutions
Work Cited
"Historic Home: Frank Gehry’s First Deconstructivist Building." Web Urbanist. n. page. Web. 12 Sep. 2013. <http://weburbanist.com/2008/02/03/the-house-that-shaped-an-architectural-generation-frank-gehrys-first-deconstructivist-building/>.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. "History Of Architecture." Ancient Greek, Ancient Roman, Gothic, Deconstructivist. 2013 . <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_architecture>.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. "6000BC—present, 1000AD—present." Timeline Of Architectural Styles. 2013 . <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_architectural_styles>.

What is Architecture?
The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends and dates.

It is both the process and product of planning, designing, and construction, usually of buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

Architectural Styles
To understand the differences as well as the similarities between various commonly well known historical architectural designs. Styles such as Ancient Greek/Roman, Gothic, and Deconstructive architecture.
Greek vs Roman
With the Roman influence overlapping the Greek's style for more than 75% of each other's reign, styles appear indefinably correlated. The basis of the the Roman's influence evolved around the improvement and modernizing of an already well known style.
By 300 years BC the roman empire then conquered Greece. Their ruling also influenced/altered the architectural style of the Greeks.

The initial greek design was not drastically altered; but, modernized.
The Roman Conquerance
The style itself is entirely based on the concept of urbanism; a civic way of life gained by all members of the community.

Starting from 900 BC until the 1st century AD the design of the greeks was fairly popular.
Ancient Greek/Roman Design
Religious matters were held by the ruling class; thus, the mystery has skipped the confines of the temple with in the palace compounds and was subjected to the people.

The sustainability of a civic life was the result evolving around the construct of new, open spaces [also known as 'agora'], which were surrounded by public structures of all sorts.
Open spaces embodied the new found respect for social justice received through open debate rather than imperial mandate.
The Roman's aimed to achieve the unity of disparity. Public participation that was once apart of the Greek's design, was removed from rituals and represented in the detailed decor of the architecture rather than personal participation.
Representations of sanctity over actual sacred spaces participated in society in order to have a communicative nature for open human manipulation.

The invention of arcs, bridges, domes, roads, etc played a role in altering the greek architectural design.
Ancient Roman
In regards to religious beliefs, the Greeks placed temples atop mountains or any near by hill as a way to signify that they too can touch the surface of the heavens. Temples during this stage, were presented with fairly distinctive aspects involving the design.
With consideration of this theory, public participation in rituals were performed with in these temples.

Their design was specifically centered and recognized around the rather large pillar, usually to emphasize it eye catching doors.
Ancient Greek
The style of architecture that flourished during the high and late 11th - 12th century of the medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture.
Gothic Design
Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance.
Further Understanding
It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeals to the emotions, whether springing from faith or from civic pride. A great number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period, of which even the smallest are often structures of architectural distinction while many of the larger churches are considered priceless works of art.
Gothic architecture is the based on the stylistic design of the late medieval period, characterized by use of the pointed arch. Other features common to Gothic architecture are the rib vault, buttresses, including flying buttresses; large windows which are often grouped, or have tracery; rose windows, towers, spires and pinnacles; and ornate façades.

Verticality is emphasized in the design, through almost skeletal stone structure, great expanses of glass, pared-down wall surfaces supported by external flying buttresses, pointed arches using the ogive shape, ribbed stone vaults, clustered columns, pinnacles and sharply pointed spires. Windows contain beautiful stained glass, showing stories from the Bible and from lives of saints. Such advances in design allowed cathedrals to rise taller than ever, and it became something of an inter-regional contest to build a church as high as possible.
Deconstructivism in architecture is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s.

It is influenced by the theory of "Deconstruction", which is a form of semiotic analysis.
Deconstructive Design
Deconstructivism is characterized by fragmentation, an interest in manipulating a structure's surface or skin, non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit deconstructivist "styles" is characterized by unpredictability and controlled chaos.
Deconstructivism took a confrontational stance to architectural history, wanting to "disassemble" architecture. While postmodernism returned to embrace the historical references that modernism had shunned, possibly ironically, deconstructivism rejected the postmodern acceptance of such references, as well as the idea of ornament as an after-thought or decoration. Deconstructivism should be considered an extension of his interest in radical formalism. Some practitioners of deconstructivism were also influenced by the formal experimentation and geometric imbalances of Russian constructivism.
Also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo) is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and stone, it was the largest amphitheatre of the Roman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering. It is the largest amphitheatre in the world. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian in 70 AD, and was completed in 80 AD under his successor and heir Titus. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian (81–96).

Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church

What known structure is it today?...
Roman Colosseum
Frank Gehry’s house in Santa Monica
Catholic Cathedral in Hamilton, Ontario
Pattern Noticed Between the Eras
After an analysis of 3 of the most historically well known architectural designs, it is quite evident that there are patterns between each era of structural stylistic design. Every era of architecture is simply a slight improvement of the previous era. With its influence, future designs can perfect and expand new and revolutionizing ideas.
Ancient Roman Architecture was simply the improvement of the Ancient Greek Architecture. With a few small tweaks and enhancements lead to a new era in architectural design.
Ancient Greek/Roman
The development of the Gothic stylistic design was simply a turn around rebellion regarding the design of the ancient Greeks and Romans. This transition shaped the way people viewed sacred places and temples.
Fast forward a couple decades and you have deconstructivist architectural designs which is basically a branch off of the mid-century modern era.
The final task of deconstruction is not to surpass all oppositions; because it is assumed that they are structurally necessary to produce sense, they cannot be suspended once and for all.[6] They need to be analyzed and criticized in all their manifestations; the function of both logical and axiological oppositions must be studied in all discourses to provide meaning and values.

To be effective, and simply as its mode of practice, deconstruction creates new notions or concepts, not to synthesize the terms in opposition, but to mark their difference, undecidability, and eternal interplay.
Further Understanding
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