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Transcript of Glucose Metabolism
Acetyl CoA (2c)
Electron Transport Chain
Glucose is broken down in a series of chemical reactions to make 2 molecules of PGAL
Citric Acid Cycle
The 2 molecules of PGAL then go through a series of chemical reactions turning into 2 molecules of Pyruvate
These 2 pyruvate then go on to the Gateway Step
Succinyl CoA (4c)
Krebs/Citric Acid/ Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle
The energy-rich, unstable bond holding the Acetyl group to the CoA breaks. The energy released is used to attach the Acetyl group to a 4 carbon Oxaloacetate molecule forming Citrate.
Two reactions rearrange the atoms of Citrate. In the first reaction a molecule of water is removed. In the second reaction a molecule is added. Through the reactions of taking and adding water, Citrate is turned into its isomer Isocitrate.
Isocitrate undergoes dehydrogenation and decarboxylation to yield the 5-carbon compound a-ketoglutarate.
Next a-ketoglutarate undergoes decarboxylation and dehydrogenation to form the 4-carbon compound Succinyl CoA. This reaction is catalyzed by a multienzyme complex similar to the complex that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to aceytl CoA.
Mandy Sham, Russell Long, Sabah Akther, Ross McCarthy
Substrate-level phosphorylation takes place in this step. The bond attaching CoA to Succinate CoA is energy-rich and can be written with a wavy line. The energy of this bond of succinyl CoA is tranferred to an energy-rich phosphate bond in the form of guanosine triphosphate, GTP, a compound similar to ATP. The GTP is then converted to ATP. In this step succinyl CoA is converted to succinate.
Succinate is oxidized when two of its hydrogens are transferred to FAD, forming FADH . The resulting compound is Fumarate.
With the addition of water, Fumarate is converted to Malate.
ETC is a series of proteins embedded in the inner membrane of mitochondria
Malate is dehydrogenated, forming oxaloacetate. The two hydrogens removed are transferred to NAD. Oxaloacetate can now combine with another molecule of acetyl CoA beginning a new cycle.
Summary of Glucose Metabolism
Under aerobic conditions, the pyruvate generated from glucose is oxidatively decarboxylated to form acetyl CoA. In eukaryotes, the reactions of the citric acid cycle take place inside mitochondria, in contrast with those of glycolysis, which take place in the cytosol
ATP - 2
FADH - 0
NADH - 2 4 ATP
ATP - 0
FADH - 0
NADH - 2 6 ATP
ATP - 2
FADH - 2 4 ATP
NADH - 6 18 ATP
The Electron Transport Chain
(ETC) makes energy.
- Up to 34 ATP are made from the products of 1 molecule of glucose.
- The Citric Acid Cycle and Electron Transport Chain take place in the mitochondria. The NADH then floats over to the inner-membrane & can enter the ETC, while FADH2 enters the the transport chain.
- The ATPase ynthetase in the diagram is an enzyme which makes ATP
- 10 NADH enter the electron transport chain, which originally come from each of the earlier processes of respiration: 2 from glycolysis, 2 from the transformation of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, & six from the citric acid cycle. The 2 FADH2 originate in the citric acid cycle.