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Fertilization planning for salad greens

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Marie-Pier Gosselin

on 4 December 2013

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Transcript of Fertilization planning for salad greens

Time of day:
no effect
Irrigation:
highest values 2-4 days after irrigation
Weather:
no abnormally high temp and solar radiation for 2 days prior.
Nutrient management for salad greens
Fields analysis
Field 13

P very good
K very good
Ca poor
Mg very good
o.m 8.9%
field 13, 14:
Zn, Bo
,
Cu
field 15:
Bo
,
Cu, Zn
Boron, copper, zinc, molybdenum
molybdenum and Boron
Boron
Zinc
symptoms
recommendation
application
Molybdenum
Beet with zinc deficienc: http://www.apsnet.org/y

Field 15

P very good
K very rich
Ca rich
Mg good
o.m 10.5%
lettuce with molybdenum deficiency: http://www.haifa-group.com
budget
cost/bed
Calcium deficiency
0.34$
14.72$
other
costs
Tip burn
dolomitic lime = 20$/ton .......................
commercial compost = 40.00$/500kg..
seeds and seeder
seed bed preparation
marketing
irrigation
expected yield
35.05 kg per bed /year
or...
Post-harvest preservation
Disease and pest management
2000-3000 kg/ha
23$/kg!
Agronomic advice
Ca supply
dolomitique lime
Foliar applications of calcium chloride (9kg/ 1000L/ha) (Weil and Duval , 2009)
season extension
adapting varieties
weed control
rotation
pests
Liming
Centre de référence en agriculture et agroalimentaire du Québec (CRAAQ). 2010. Guide de référence en fertilisation. 2e édn. Centre de référence en agriculture et agroalimentaire du Québec, Ste Foy, Qc.
Cloutier, Daniel and Maryse Leblanc. 2005. Faux Semis. Available at www.agrireseau.qc.ca/agriculturebiologique/documents/FXSEMIS.pdf. Accessed nov. 12th, 2013.
Coleman, Eliot. 2009. The Winter-Harvest Handbook. Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction, Vermont.
Delahaut , K.A. and A.C. Newenhouse. 2003. Growing salad greens in Wisconsin, a guide for fresh-market growers. University of Wisconsin-Extension, cooperative extension, Wisconsin, USA.
Duval J. and Ménard G. 2012. Manuel des intrants bio: un recueil des intrants commerciaux autorisés en production biologique et disponibles au Québec. CETAB+, Victoriaville, Qc.
Fortier, Jean-Martin. 2012. Notes sur la production de mesclun dans nos jardins. Available at http://lejardiniermaraicher.com/blogue/notes-sur-la-production-de-mesclun-dans-nos-jardins/ (accessed october 20th, 2013)
Fortier J-M. 2012. Le jardinier-maraîcher. Manuel d’agriculture biologique sur petite surface. Les Éditions Écosociété, Montréal, Qc.
Hoque M.M., Ajwa H., Othman M., Smith R. and Cahn M. 2010. Yield and Postharvest Quality of Lettuce in Response to Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilizers. HortScience, 45(10):1539-1544.
Jobin P. and Douville Y. 1997. Engrais verts et cultures intercalaires. Centre de développment d’agrobiologie, Sainte-Élizabeth-de-Warwick, Qc.
Lafrance, Denis. 2007. La culture biologique des légumes. Berger éditions, Austin, Québec.
Marché de Solidarité régionale de Victoriaville (MSRV). 2013. Available at http://www.marchevicto.com(accessed nov. 2nd, 2013). Marché de Solidarité régionale de Victoriaville, Victoriaville, Canada.
Marché de solidarité régionale de Joliette (MSRJ). 2013. Available at http://www.msrjoliette.org (accessed nov. 2nd, 2013). Marché de solidarité régionale de Joliette, Joliette, Canada.
Ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Alimentation et des Affaires Rurales de l’Ontario. 2008. Recommandations pour les cultures légumières 2008-2009. Imprimeur de la Reine pour l’Ontario. Toronto.
Nelson, Virginia. 2002. Nutrients in compost. Available at http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/eng4466 (accessed nov. 1st 2013). Alberta Agriculture and Rural Developmnet, Lethbridge, Alberta.
Newenhouse A.C. 2010. Growing fresh market salad greens. University of Wisconsin-Extension Environmental Resources Center. Publication A3904.
Pryjma, Luke. 2013. Beyond Nitrates: Understanding Anions in Soil Fertility in the Northeast. Northeast Organic Farming Association newsletter march 2013. Available at www.nofamass.org (accessed nov. 5th 2013). Rebecca Buell, ed. Northeast Organic Farming Association/Massachusetts Chapter, Inc. Sheldon Road Barre, Massachussets.
Weill A. and Duval J. 2009. Guide de gestion globale de la ferme maraîchère biologique et diversifiée. Équiterre, Montréal, Qc.
Whalen Joann K., and Hicham Benslim. 2012. Organic soil fertilization lecture notes. Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada
William Dam Seeds. 2013. 2013 Catalog. Available at http://www.damseeds.ca (accessed nov. 2nd, 2013).
Zerouala, Larbi. 2007. Le mesclun: tout un mélange printanier ! Available at www.agrireseau.qc.ca. (Accessed nov. 2nd, 2013). Centre de Réference en Agriculture et Agroalimentaire du Québec (CRAAAQ), Québec, Canada.

Field 15

Macronutrients
Micronutrients

Field 13
Dolomitique lime
(Brookville manufacturing)
neutralizing value = 100%
humidity = 5%
8hp rear tine tiller = 4 " deep
= 20 kg/bed
2.5 kg/ha =
14 kg/bed
References
Fertilization
Oat cover crop + complementary fertilizers (Field 13)
Steam treated rock phosphate (0-16-0)
Potassium sulfate (0-0-50)
Recommendations from the literature
vs
vs
vs
Windy site

Previous crops: potatoes and carrots

Acidic soil

Low N crop requirement

Deficient micronutrients
4.2 kg/bed
0.7 kg/bed
Commercial compost (0.3-0.3-0.3) + complementary fertilizers (field 13)
rock phosphate = 0.44 t/ha (2.5 kg/bed)
potassium sulfate = 0.14 t/ha (0.8kg/bed).
184 kg/bed
Plant Tissue Analysis
Chlorophyll Meters - Single-photon avalanche diode
SPAD 502 commonly used to determine N uptake in corn and wheat. Measures red (650nm) and IR (940nm) reflectance.
When used in lettuce values varied widely between lettuce types and also among cultivars.
Sensor area is too small to account for the variation in color of lettuce.
Commercial wide spectrum sensors give accurate readings, but technology is not ready for field use.
Early plants:
Whole plant
Midseason and Preharvest:
Whole leaf (youngest wrapper leaf)
DRIS analysis:
Calibration is done with high yielding crops to determine their nutrient at difference stages of their life. Once calculated, the index is universal for all field conditions.
Eg.
N Index = [ f(S/N) + f(P/N) + f(Ca/N) + f(K/N)]/4

When to Sample
What to Sample
What is it?
Proven Technology
But not universal
Problems
Shipping & Handling
No deterioration after 24hrs in refrigeration or at room temp.
Ensure samples are well aerated in paper bags.
Sufficiency Range
Full transcript