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1/31 Spanish Louisiana

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Liz Skilton

on 1 February 2018

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Transcript of 1/31 Spanish Louisiana

Announcements
Plan for the week --> Spanish Louisiana --> Purchase!
End!
Louisiana History
Spanish Louisiana
Review
What changes does Louisiana undergo during the Royal Colony period?

How does Louisiana become a Spanish colony?
Spanish Louisiana
5x Pop. Growth During Spanish Period
3 Major Causes:
1. Spanish policies on "defensive settlement"

2. Growth in agriculture

3. Spain's conquest of West Florida during the American Revolution
Defensive Settlement
The American Revolution
Growth in Agriculture
A Raw Deal With Significant Results
**Approx. census data**
1769 Census (first Spanish census):
14,000 LA residents
3,500 in NOLA

1784 Census:
25,000 LA residents
5,000 in NOLA

1800 Census (LA turned over to French again):
50,000 LA residents
10,000 in NOLA

The Early Years
See a flock of people out of LA when Spanish take over

Spanish move people into region from other colonies


Governor Esteban Miro
"Defensive colonization" policy -- need to fill out region or they will lose it

Practiced with Acadians, Canary Islanders, Africans, Anglo-Americas, Englishmen, Haitians
An Unofficial Participant
Spain stays out in beginning

However, ships supplies to British colonists
Gunpowder, weapons, blankets, uniforms, medicines

Provides Trans-Appalachian manpower in West Florida region
Spain Enters the War (1779)
Governor Bernardo de Galvez organizes attack on British West Florida
Baton Rouge the central goal
Attacks fort at present day LSU
Successful!
Then goes after Mobile & into Pensacola
Result:
What They Gain, Besides Territory
--Highly-producing area of land (cotton)

--Massive influx of people
-- Official residents of Florida Parishes
-- Allegiance to Spanish crown for trade purposes (Andrew Jackson)
Mexican Cotton/West Florida Cotton Plantations
1795 Sugar Refining Process
Expansion of the State
Poste de Rapides/Alexandria
(1718-1722)
1720s: 1,500 Slaves

1763: 10,000 Slaves

1803: 28,000 Slaves
Growth in Slavery
Le Grand Derangement / The Great Expulsion
Racial Relationships
Number of slaves grows with economic increase

Unique blended slave culture emerges during Spanish period

Spanish administration issues own slave codes based on earlier French laws

Two unique occurrences during Spanish period:


Pointe Coupee Rebellion
Slave Revolt, 1795
April 1795
Economy & Labor
Population & cash crop development largest changes here
--Prior to, largely subsistence farming

Also see the introduction of cattle industry (via Texas)

1790s: "Plantation Revolution"
Haitian Revolution
Part of Age of Revolutions

Revolt ends in establishment of free republic

Scares slave owners worldwide
April 1795
A plot is discovered

Takes place on plantation of Julian Poydras

60 arrested, 57 slaves convicted, 3 whites

23 go to scaffold

Others sent for long prison sentences (floggings & gang labor)
Heads on Spikes along MS River
Maroon Societies Develop
Haitian Revolution Also Results in Large Free People of Color Population
1/2 of population women

42% gained freedom through concubinage or placage relationships
Vivid culture:

-Quadroon Balls

-City life (safer)

-Some even owned own slaves!
Rebuilding From Scratch
Architecture
definitely influenced by Spanish (& Disasters!)
--1722 Hurricane destroys N.O.
--1788 & 1794 Fires

Can thank Spanish for construction of central features of New Orleans

+ Cotton Gin
Now That Louisiana Is Thriving.....
France wants it back.
Governor Manuel de Salcedo
Takes over after last governor dies in office in 1798

Not popular, hates the Anglo-Louisianans

Revokes trade policies affecting the MS River & Ohio Valley
As A Result, Louisiana Residents Petition France to Take them Back!
Change up in France -- French Revolution

Sets off conflict between Spanish & French

Napoleon Bonaparte comes to power
Signs
Treaty of San Ildefonso
on October 1, 1800 stating that Louisiana would become French again
--Going to try and keep it a secret! #FAIL
Governor Manuel de Salcedo
Napoleon Bonaparte
Which Brings Us To:
Spain Takes Over, Resentfully
Complete reformation of city structure & laws
Builds Louisiana into a viable & highly producing region by introduction of SUGAR & COTTON
Promotes high settlement of region
1762
Governor Antonio de Ulloa
Took 1 year to make to New Orleans after arriving in Louisiana (Balize)

Hated so much by French people that he:

-- Could not fly the Spanish flag in Jackson Square

-- Was eventually forced to flee Louisiana by a mob during a rebellion shortly after taking over!

-Insurrection of 1768
Result: General Alejandro O'Reilly Dispatched
Irish Roman Catholic, distinguished Spanish general

Executed by firing squad those involved in uprising
-"Bloody O'Reilly"

Marked firm establishment of Spanish rule -- expelled British traders, encouraged Spanish port trade, firm rules, improved Indian relationships, and enacted new laws
-"Code O'Reilly"

Followed by other generals & leaders: Luis de Unzaga & Bernardo de Galvez
1.
2.
3.
Result:
Étienne de Boré
Boré's Sugar Refining Process
granulated
The Louisiana Purchase
U.S. President Thomas Jefferson sends James Monroe to work with French ambassador Robert R. Livingston to purchase New Orleans in Paris, 1803

IMPORTANT!
Did not want all of Louisiana, just New Orleans
Napoleon's Surprise
Take it all.
Monroe & Livingston Act Alone -- Yes, We'll Buy It
$15 Mil for Land + $5 Mil for shipping debts
Why Napoleon, Why?
1. Realized Louisiana of little use without New Orleans

2. Wanted $$ for war in Europe (his empire)

3. Was concerned he would lose LA anyways to someone (Spanish or Americans)

-4. Did not have enough support (physically) in region
Spain -- Left Feeling Jilted
Hey Man, Not Cool
Full transcript