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History and Development of Tourism

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Sanja Marinov

on 17 October 2016

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Transcript of History and Development of Tourism

History and Development of Tourism
Classical times
Rome
middle classes
prosperity
enjoyed travel for leisure and business
Rome
domestic
tourism
important
urban
tourism destination
facilities
/
events

overseas
territories
administration created a
demand for
business-related travel
The Olympic Games
major sporting event
stimulus
for tourism
travelled to the
site
of the Olympic Games
housed in tented encampments
international travel - limited due to the Greek wars
Greek Philosophers
Aristotle
leisure
- key element of the Greek lifestyle
concept of leisure
recognition
endorsement
promotion
leisure facilities
spas
baths
resorts
Rome
construction of colosseums
supply
of tourism-related facilities
inns
bars

Rome
The Middle Ages
the early part - the Dark Ages
civilisation and progress of the Roman era
declined
emergence of
festival and event-based "tourism"
demand for
travel and temporary accommodation
pilgrims
to the Holy Land
travel difficult
poor quality of access
demand for accommodation and hospitality services
en route
Middle Age Pilgrimages
jousting tournaments and spectatorship
Activities of the nobility and knights
expanded
opportunities:
new territories (military
conquest
)
trade
provision
of infrastructure and facilities
provision
of roads
Rome
end of the 14th century
collection of stories in Middle English
the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral
the tales
contest by a group of pilgrims
Geoffrey Chaucer
The Canterbury Tales
The site of the Tabard Inn in Southwark
licenses for entertainers
granted to the nobles of England for the maintenance of troupes of players
The Elizabethan Theatre started
the cobbled courtyards of Inns, or taverns
troubadours
,
strolling players
and
minstrels
entertained people at markets, fairs, castles
memorized long poems
often viewed as vagabonds and had the reputation as thieves
spread and frequent
outbreaks
of the
plague
or Black Death during the Elizabethan era
regulations

restricting
travel
licenses were required
a notable
turning point
in the history of leisure
Lutheran and Calvinistic ideas
questioned
the value of leisure
leisure is idleness
the rise of the industrial society
capitalists and entrepreneurs needed to create a more profitable economy

Reformation
The Grand Tour Itinerary
crossed the English Channel
accompanied by a tutor and a troop of servants
a French-speaking guide
17th and 18th centuries - the language of the elite
lessons in French, dancing, fencing, and riding
appeal of Paris
sophisticated language and manners of French high society, courtly behavior and fashion
preparing the young man for a leadership position at home - government or diplomacy
Paris
from Paris to urban Switzerland
Geneva or Lausanne
endure a difficult crossing over the Alps into northern Italy
Switzerland
Turin (and, less often, Milan)
Florence
Uffizi gallery brought together in one space the monuments of High Renaissance paintings and Roman sculptures
side trips to Pisa
move on to Padua, Bologna, and Venice
Italy
Rome
the ruins of ancient Rome, and the masterpieces of painting, sculpture, and architecture
Naples
music
recently discovered archaeological sites of Pompeii
ascent of Mount Vesuvius
Innsbruck, Vienna, Dresden, Berlin and Potsdam
universities in Munich or Heidelberg
Holland and Flanders
gallery-going and art appreciation
German speaking parts
Establishment of resorts
Elizabethan times
growth of
spas as a form of tourism development
awareness of the
therapeutic
qualities of mineral water increased
grew in
popularity
in the 17th century - Britain
a little later - the European Continent

Bath
well-known example of spa development
Roman origins
visited all through the Middle Ages
medicinal value
of its waters

Spa resorts as inland tourism destinations
Bath
expanded rapidly
dramatic
rise in

population
number of visitors
visiting
season expanded
further investment and development
improvements in transportation
better roads
expanded
coach service
reduced
travel times
linked to a
wider range of
visitor markets
up to the 18th century
coast - an environment to avoid due to the forces of nature and evil
18th century
poets, artists and romanticists
beach and coastline - a site for pleasure, a place for spiritual fulfillment and for tourism
The seaside resort
overcrowding
of inland spas = new seaside resorts grew in popularity
small fishing resorts
sprung up
in England
visitors
drank
sea water and
immersed
themselves in it
associated with
health benefits
seaside resort - a social meeting point
steamboat
services
introduced more resorts in the circuit
You can drink it too
The Great Exibition
held
in 1851, London
heralded
the
establishment
of package holiday
visitors
purchased
organised accommodation and travel from travel clubs/agents
real change to tourism and leisure patterns
introduction of
holiday time
workers
entitled
to a period of paid holidays
coastal areas
more accessible
to the working classes
social differentiation
in coastal resorts
resort developers
, the
town authorities
and
businesses
attracted certain types of visitors
Beginning of the 20th century and inter-war years
first hand experience of countries
slowed the growth of international tourism
domestic tourism
renewed boost for many resorts
R&R, i.e. rest and recuperation function
overseas travel by
passenger liner
imperial trade
of many European powers
demand for business travel
railway
extended access
to many regions
The First World War
large scale
of migration to the United States
a lot of travel
across the Atlantic
private motoring
encouraged domestic travel
sea side resort
annual family holiday destination
hotels proliferated
depression
in industrial economies - 1920s and 1930s
suppressed
the
demand
for tourism

greater advertising, promotion and marketing
by tour operators, resorts, transport providers
popularisation of travel in guidebooks
real rise of mass tourism was a post-war phenomenon
Hallmarks of commercialised travel
Post-war tourism: towards international mass tourism
increased interest in international travel and demand for holidays
growth in
income, leisure time and opportunities for international travel
surplus
military aircraft
converted
to passenger services
1950s -
introduction of jet airliners

chartered
flights
boosted
the
package tour
market
cost of travel
brought down

sharply
establishment of organised mass tourism
Air travel
spending more on overseas than on domestic holidays
growth in hotel industry
establishment of world-wide chains
diversification
alternative destinations in the 1970s
individual travel - 1980s
oil crisis
- 1970s
increased oil prices
massive drop in tourist travel
1970s, 1980s and 1990s
increasing
proliferation
of tourism products and experiences
Proliferation of tourism products
When?
originated
in the 16th century
related to the Renaissance
emergence of interest in
classical antiques
Who?
wealthy, aristocratic and privileged classes
Why?

in pursuit of
culture, education and pleasure
Where?
key destinations and places to visit in Europe
trends in festivals and fairs continued
new opportunities to travel
patronage
of the arts
rise of
travelling theatres
no theatres in England before 1500s
The Renaissance
The following items are used in your introductory text (page 2):
trace back
,
phenomenon
,
means
,
origin
,
in terms of
,
evolve
.

Try to match them to the following definitions.

to develop gradually or to cause something or someone to develop gradually
used to describe which particular area of a subject you are discussing
money that allows you to buy things
the beginning or cause of something
something that exists and can be seen, felt, tasted, etc.
to discover the cause or origin of something by examining the way in which it has developed

Eye on vocabulary
Speaking

Think of some real life examples in which you could use these items and share them with your peers. Let your colleagues know what you think of their examples. Praise them or gently correct them.
Now try to define the following words yourself:
pilgrim
,
emergence
,
en route
,
decline
.
Can you remember the context in which we used them? If not, check it against the text in your study material.
The European Grand Tour
Full transcript