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Transcript of 5A GARDERNERS
European corn borer - Corn borers feed on the foliage and internal portions of the stalk. They are usually identified by insect holes bored into the stalk and droppings on the foliage. They will bore overwinter in corn stalks, so fall cleanup is essential. Delay planting of corn to miss the first brood, then plant the mid-season varieties. European corn borer control is difficult for home gardeners because sprays are effective only during the two to three day period after eggs hatch and before larvae bore into the stalks. Pay close attention to the presence of eggs. Eggs are white and one-half the size of a pinhead. They are laid in masses that overlap like fish scales. Eggs darken just before hatching. To control, use the recommended insecticides. Two or more treatments may be needed weekly, since four generations may occur each season.Japanese beetles - Japanese beetles normally congregate on the tip of the ear and feed on the silks. This may reduce pollination and yields. Japanese beetles can usually be effectively controlled by applying recommended insecticides as a foliar spray directly to the silk when it first appears, and continuing weekly until harvest.If birds are a problem in your garden, stealing seeds or eating seedlings, cover your corn patch with a floating row cover immediately after planting seeds.Corn smut - A disfiguring parasitic fungus that forms large "boils" on stalks, leaves, tassels, or ears, prevalent in hot, dry weather. The case splits apart and spreads inky black dusty spores. At first appearance, the spore cases should be cut off and burned. It is essential to cut off the cases before they burst, as the spores are viable for 5-7 years. Squash is a warm-season crop, very tender to frost and light freezes.Harvest begins in 2 months. Winter squash requires a longer growing season and more garden space for sprawling plants. They generally do not tend to thrive in hot, dry regions where there is a limited water supply.A light, fertile soil deeply enriched with well-rotted manure and compost to retain soil moisture, or with a well-balanced fertilizer before planting; squash are heavy feeders. In boron deficient soils, add 1 teaspoon of borax per plant.When the soil is warm and the air temperature settled. Squash are susceptible to frost and cool weather. If the growing season is very short, seed can be started indoors in peat pots for transplanting outdoors 6 weeks later. Use peat pots with the bottom removed; squash do not like to have their taproot disturbed. It is best to transplant before the roots wrap around the pot. For direct sowing wait until the soil temperature is about 60 degrees, or until roses are in bud and lilacs are in bloom.To prepare, dig 18" deep holes, fill partly with well-rotted manure and/or compost; complete filling with a mixture of soil and compost. Winter squash does not transplant well, but can be sown inside in individual pots to minimize root disturbance.Traditionally 6-8 seeds are placed 1" deep in each hole; when seedlings reach 3 inches, thin to two seedlings. Summer squash hills should be placed 3 feet apart each way; plant 6 or 7 seeds per hill and thin to the 3 strongest seedlings when the plants are 3 inches high. Or the seeds can be planted sparingly in rows three feet apart and thinned to 2 feet apart. Winter squash hills should be placed 6-8 feet apart each way; thin to the strongest 3 plants when the seedlings are 3 inches high.Squash are spreading, vine-like plants with wiry, curly tendrils. Summer squash are more compact growing types called "bush". The leaves are large, shaped somewhat like a maple leaf. The five-petaled squash flowers are very beautiful, with their yellow orange colors. Soon after the flowers wilt, the squash start to develop. Summer squash ripen in several days; winter squash take much longer to fully develop.The squash area should be kept free of weeds while the plants are young. Black-plastic or very heavy mulch is practical for such spreading vine plants, as weeding is difficult. Feed twice, immediately after thinning to the strongest 3 seedlings and again just before the vines start to "run". The plants must have adequate moisture all through the growing season. Note: The popular notation that squash and melon cross-pollinate each other is a fallacy, although they can cross pollinate with other plants such as pumpkin. Summer - 60-70 days. These squash are picked immature before they are fully formed. The skin should be soft and tender, otherwise the squash will be overripe and of poor quality. Check squash plants almost daily when they start to flower, as the fruit will develop in 2 or 3 days in hot growing weather. The vines must be kept picked or the plants will stop producing. Winter - 90-120 days. When the stems turn a light green yellow color, the squash should be fully ripe. The rind will be thick and tough. Cut, do not pull, the ripe fruit from the plant. Two to three inches of stem must remain for proper storing. This may increase the sugar content.Squash bug - Pick the red-brown egg clusters when seen or use pyrethrum or rotenone. The insects can be trapped under boards set out at night and the pests destroyed in the morning. Squash vine borer - Undetected until a vine suddenly wilts, in tunnels into the stem. The entry hole can usually be noted by the presence of excrement. Cut into the stem with a razor to kill the borer, then cover the split vines with moist dirt so it can reroot and continue growing. Cucumbers Grow cucumbers where a long, warm growing season, minimum 65 days, can be assured. Cucumbers are a warm-season crop, very tender to frost and light freezing. Cucumbers are difficult to grow where there are foggy, damp summers.The following show resistance to all or many cucumber maladies: Market more Hybrid, Table green 65, Spartain Valor; Marketer; Burpee Hybrid. All female varieties: Gemini; Victory; Pioneer; Mariner.A fertile clay soil supports good cucumber growth if it is enriched with well-rotted manure and compost to aid its water-retentive qualities.Warm soil (65 degrees) is necessary for cucumbers to take hold. The plants are very susceptible to frost. Where there is a very short growing season, cucumbers can be planted in peat pots indoors a month to 6 weeks before planting outdoors. Cucumbers do not take readily to transplanting, and should be handled so that their roots are not disturbed. If necessary, transplant seedlings on a cloudy day or in the afternoon to minimize transplanting shock. If there is alot garden space, the vines can be allowed to sprawl over the ground. Use a mulch, black plastic, straw or salt hay to keep the fruit clean. For small gardens, plan on training them to a trellis or support of some kind. This not only keeps the fruit clean and off the ground for quick ripening, but enables the fruit to grow straighter.Where there is ample space and vines can sprawl, the simplest way is to plant cucumbers in hills, with several plants placed together in close proximity in a small mound of soil. Space hills 4 feet apart each way and plant about 8 seeds per hill. Thin to the 3 strongest plants when the seedlings are about 4 inches high. Since cucumbers grow rapidly once started, the ground should be prepared well in advance. Work a deep planting hole where each hill will be. Add a spade full of well-rotted manure, and a generous handful of 5-10-10 or bone meal and rock potash. Work in well and cover with soil before planting the seeds about an inch deep. The same soil preparation works well if the vines are to be trained on a support or grown in patio tubs. Beans Beans are a warm season crop, tender to light frosts and freezes. Bush beans are usually determinate, with one clean harvest, so plant every 10 days for a continuous harvest. Pole beans are usually indeterminate with a continuous harvest for 6-8 weeks, so only one planting is necessary if kept picked. Bare roots don't tolerate disturbances, so handle seedlings minimally. Plan on planting an average of 10-20 plants per person.Beans can be grown in average soil, almost anywhere in the United States. They grow best if the soil is well drained and the summer is consistently warm. Seeds will rot in the ground in cold, damp weather. Since Beans are subject to downy mildew, they should not be grown where there are cold summer fogs. Harvest: Average 65-75 days. Warm soil is essential, especially for Lima beans.After the soil is sufficiently warm - temperatures above 75 degrees. Beans are easily killed by frost. Plan on an average of 10-20 plants per person. Some gardeners recommend presoaking seeds prior to planting, but research indicates soaked seeds absorb water too quickly, causing the outer coats to spill out essential nutrients, which encourages seed rot. Lima Beans: Germination in 10 days. Plant seeds 3-4 inches apart, with eyes down, 1 inch deep in rows 2 feet apart. Two plantings a month apart produce a prolonged harvest. Harvest: Average 65-75 days.Bush Beans: Germination in 7 days. Plant seeds 2 inches apart, 1 1/2 inches deep in rows 2 feet apart. Thin to about 6-8 plants per foot of row. Bean plants produce the bulk of their crop for a 2 week period. Rather than plant the entire row, sections should be planted at 2 week intervals until mid-July or 8 weeks before the first killing frost. This will assure a steady crop all summer. Harvest: Average 50 days.Pole Beans: Germination in 8 to 14 days. Set 3 rough barked, 6 foot poles in the ground, tepee fashion, and tie together at the top. Leave 3 to 4 feet between the pole groups. Make a hill at the base of each pole, enriched with compost or well-rotted manure, and plant 6-8 seeds in each. After the second pair of true leaves appear, thin to 3 plants per pole. With regular harvesting, the pole beans should bear all summer. Harvest: 65 days.Keep rows weed free with shallow cultivation or heavy mulching; beans are shallow rooted, and should not be cultivated deeply. Never work around beans after a rainfall or in the early morning when the leaves are still wet from dew. The plants are susceptible to rust, which spreads when the foliage is wet. Water weekly and deeply during dry spells, as beans need constant soil moisture to develop properly. Feed pole varieties by working a thin band of 5-10-5 or 4-12-12 around each hill, once at plating time and again as beans start to form. In addition, pinch off the growing tips of pole beans when plants reach the top of their support system.Watch plants carefully as beans start to form and harvest every 2-3 days. Beans are ready to pick when the pods are well formed and rounded and snap readily if bent in half. Wax beans should have a good yellow color. Be sure to lift up the bean plants and look under the foliage to pick every ripe bean. This will promote a continued crop. If beans are left on the plants too long, the seeds overdevelop and the pods become tough. Poorly formed pods are caused by too dry soil, poor infertile soil, or insect damage. Lima beans are picked when the pods are well filled and still green in color. If the pods are yellowing, the beans are too mature and can be left on the vine and picked later to use as dry beans.Bean Pests are Mexican Bean beetle - A coppery brown beetle with black spots that lays yellow eggs and goes through an ugly nymph stage. Crush the yellow egg clusters when seen and hand pick beetles,and Aphids - Plant nasturtiums between rows.Bean Diseases are Anthracnose: Clean up after crop is harvested. Never work around wet beans, and buy quality seed. Bacterial blight: Clean up after crop is harvested. Never work around wet beans, and buy quality seed. Mosaic: Select resistant varieties. Downy mildew: Do not grow in foggy regions. Corn Corn is one of the most popular crops for the vegetable garden.Corn takes a large amount of room, water, sunlight, and nutrients compared to other home garden crops.Corn loses much of its sweetness within minutes after picking.Corn is a warm-season crop, tender to frost and light freezes. Corn may be white, yellow, bicolor and many shades of red, blue, or even black. The earliest corn matures in about two months, the latest in about 3 months. Many gardeners plant early, mid, and late season varieties at the same time to extend the harvesting season. Another option to extend harvesting would be to make succession plantings of an early, fast maturing variety every 10 days or so until midsummer. A second planting should not be made until the first planting has 3-5 leaves. It should be noted that the later sweet corn matures, the more difficult insect control will be.Corn requires three months of warm, sunny weather to mature, and can grow wherever ample water is available.Average garden soil will support a good corn crop, but the best results are obtained when the ground is deeply prepared with well-rotted manure and compost to provide a light, well-draining texture. Corn is a heavy feeder, and needs generous quantities of nutrients, especially phosphorus and potash. Work in one pound of 5-10-10 or 4-8-12 per 25 feet of row, or work bone meal and wood ash into the top 8-10 inches of soil before planting. Remove any weeds, rocks, and trash as you work the soil As always, only work the soil when it is dry enough not to stick to the garden tools. If hills are planted, place a scant handful of fertilizer in the bottom of the hill and work it in well before planting the seed. Sweet corn is a warm-season crop that germinates and grows poorly during cool weather, and should only be planted when there is no more danger of frost. The soil must be warm (55-60 degrees) and days and nights warm before corn can be planted, as it is susceptible to frost and cool weather. The easiest way to prolong harvest is to plant early, midseason, and late varieties at the same time. If your family has one favorite variety, then plantings (of that same variety) can be made every two weeks until 3 months before the first frost. The supersweet and extra sweet varieties are even more sensitive to cool weather and are not normally planted until the soil temperature reaches 60 F. Corn should generally be planted on the northern side of the garden because they get tall and can easily shade the other garden crops, reducing their yield.Corn should be planted in a square block area with at least 4-6 adjacent rows of the same variety, never in one long row, as it is open-wind pollinated and needs neighboring corn plants for good formulation of well-filled (pollinated) ears of corn. Gaps in ripe ears are caused by poor pollination. The best planting depth varies with soil types and with the time of planting. Plant deeper in light soils and shallower in heavy soils. Early plantings should be shallower than later plantings because better moisture and warmer temperatures exist near the surface. If late plantings are shallow (1/2 inch) there is less likelihood that seed will germinate.Corn is a monocotyledon, a grass-like plant, as are wheat, oats, lilies, and orchids. It will grow to 4-7 feet tall on a thick, hollow stalk that supports long (2-3 foot) leathery leaves. As the plant matures, the tassel or pollen flowers will appear at the top, and from the leaf axil the small, sheathed ears will appear, with soft silk threads hanging from them. These are the female seed-bearing parts of the corn plant, the ones that receive the pollen. The ears will swell and develop into corn kernels along a central cob as pollination takes place. Suckers may also develop from corn plants, and sometimes they may even produce an ear. Usually two ears grow on each corn plant. Once pollinated, corn matures rapidly, usually 15-20 days after the first silks appear.Corn must be kept weed free, and shallow cultivation is important until the tassels appear.Corn sugar will start to turn to starch as soon as the ear is taken from the plant. Pomegranate Pomegranates grow on rounded, deciduous shrubs or small trees that grow to an average of 12 to 16 feet in height, although dwarf varieties do exist. The branches are often spiny and tend to sucker from the base.This plant offers seasonal appeal year-round: In spring, beautiful bronze leaves cover the bush, and later leaves turn a bright, glossy green. Then, large red-to-orange carnationlike flowers adorn the shrub. Throughout summer and into fall, fruits up to 3 inches in diameter glisten while filling themselves with seeds. In the fall, leaves turn bright golden-yellow to serve as a backdrop for the ripening crimson fruits that weigh down the branches, creating a weeping effect. Finally, the deciduous plant undresses itself to reveal gnarled wintry branches.Pomegranates need only light annual pruning of established plants to encourage production of quality fruit. About all you need to do is remove any dead or damaged wood after harvest. Each year, remove some of the oldest branches and some suckering growth to rejuvenate the bush.The pomegranate flowers are scarlet red, tubular shaped, and one inch in diameter.A pomegranate bush may be planted in a variety of environments and is generally simple to care for. One may be grown from seeds or from an already established plant. They generally prosper in both outdoor and indoor climates.Water the newly planted pomegranate bush thoroughly after planting. Continue to soak it every other day during the spring, tapering off to twice weekly watering during the summer. If planted during the fall, water the pomegranate bush only once each week.This bush can grow to 20 or 30 ft (6.10 to 9.14 m) in height, but typically remains at a height of 12 to 15 ft (3.66 to 4.57 m). It can survive in a variety of soils and often does very well in extremely alkaline earth that is too basic for many plants. This plant typically does well in hot, sunny climates, however, extreme humidity will adversely affect the plant’s ability to produce fruit. Gardeners in more humid climates may wish to establish their pomegranate bushes indoors, in a brightly lit greenhouse.Pomegranate bushes may fruit within the first year of planting, however, they typically require two to three years before producing. Fruit generally appears five to seven months after the plant blossoms. Trim new bushes back to a height of 2 ft (.61 m) after initial planting. Allow new shoots to form roughly 1 ft (.30 m) from the ground to encourage new growth. During subsequent seasons, only light pruning is generally needed to remove dead branches and suckers.When growing a pomegranate bush from an already existing plant, establish it in its new soil as soon as possible after purchasing it. If planting outdoors, dig a hole two to three times the width of the existing plant, to a depth equal to the height of the root base. The base of the bush should remain even with ground level without being buried.Plant the pomegranate bush in evenly drained soil, in direct sunlight. Use organic compost mixed with a small amount of local soil to backfill the hole. This loosely-packed organic compound will provide an aerated base that allows an even distribution of water without flooding the soil and creating root rot. It can also provide a slow-release fertilizer for the plant throughout the growing season.Mulch around the recently planted pomegranate bush to a depth of two to three inches (5.08 to 7.62 cm). Colder climates may benefit from increasing the amount of mulch around the bush to six inches (15.24 cm). Organic compost makes an excellent mulch as well as planting mixture, providing protection from heat and cold, and aiding the plant in fighting most harmful garden fungi and diseases. Sweet Potato Sweet potatoes are used alot in the U.S.. They are also unrelated to regular potatoes.Although sweet potatoes require 4 months of warm temperatures to develop full size tubers, they are surprising easy to grow.They generally prefer full sun, but appreciate some afternoon shade in hot, dry regions.Harvest roots in 4 months. Harvest leaves throughout season.The orange fleshed sweet potatoes are the most familiar, but sweet potatoes can be white, yellow and even purple. You can dig your tubers once the foliage starts to yellow. If the foliage is hit by a frost, the tubers are probably still fine. Just don’t let them sit in the ground too long after the tops die back.
Be gentle when digging. Sweet potato tubers grow close to the surface. Their skins are tender and can be damaged and bruised easily. Sweet potatoes like a slightly acid soil.Sweet potatoes are usually grown from slips; small rooted pieces of tuber. You can create your own slips by slicing a sweet potato in half lengthwise and placing it on a bed of damp potting soil. Cover the pieces with a few inches of soil and keep moist and warm. Small roots should develop within a few days, followed by leaves. They are ready to be lifted and planted once they’re about 4 - 8 inches tall. (About 6 weeks.) You can try growing sweet potatoes from the grocery store, but the only way to be certain you have certified disease-free roots is to buy them from a reputable seed supplie.If you have a short winter, you can begin new slips from vine cuttings. Snip off about 6" from the tips of the vines, before frost. Place these cuttings in water. Once they develop roots, plant in soil and keep them in a sunny location until it’s time to plant them outdoors.Space plants about 12 - 18" apart with 3 - 4' between rows. The vines will spread and fill in, so give them plenty of room. Feeding sweet potatoes tends to produce just foliage. Plant in a soil high in organic matter and then leave them alone.Don't water your sweet potatoes during the final 3-4 weeks prior to harvest, to keep the mature tubers from splitting. potatoes can be slow starters and they don’t like to compete with weeds. Keep the area clear until the top growth fills in and acts as a natural mulch.
Sweet potatoes can tolerate periods of drought, but regular watering is the best way to prevent splitting.Wireworms and root-knot nematodes are the biggest problems in home gardens. Damage is lessened if you rotate your crop each year. Many diseases can be avoided by choosing disease resistant varieties and using certified disease free seed sweet potatoes. Rotating their location in the garden, from year to year, also helps.Mice can also be a problem, so be on the lookout. Malbar Leaves Malabar leaves is a vigorous climbing vine in warm climates.There are two main varieties: red-stemmed and white-stemmed.Malabar spinach is a climbing plant that can reach 8' to 10' in height. Purchase or construct a support on which the plant can climb and place it in the garden site. Attach the trellis to the ground with stakes, sandbags or other heavy objects to keep it from blowing down in a storm.Young leaves and tips are used like spinach in cooking and salad. Seeds are sown in spring and early summer.Soak the seeds in water the night before planting. In spring, sow seeds 1/4" deep and approximately 18" apart. Cover with soil and water well. Keep the soil moist until the seeds germinate. Add a thin layer of straw mulch to hold in the moisture and help prevent weeds. Seeds have hard coating and it is suggested to soak seeds in water overnight or the seed skin be scratched before planting, to improve the moisture absorbing process during the germination.Malabar leaves prefers a sunny site with fertile, well-drained soil. Work a generous amount of organic soil conditioner into the soil with a garden fork. The seed germination rate is relatively low and it is suggested to sow slightly more seeds for obtaining enough plants. The plant is almost insect-free and is very easy to grow. Harvest by cutting the young leaves , but keep 2-3 leaves on the branches for subsequent new branches to grow. Walker's Low Catmint Suitable for a wide range of climatic conditions .Low maintenance .Pest and disease resistant .Readily available in the year of release .Multiple season of ornamental interest .Easily propagated by asexual or seed propagation .Walker’s Low’ has soft, grey-green foliage, a long, repeat blooming season and few problems or maintenance requirements.‘Walker’s Low’ can easily reach 2 ½ to 3' tall and equally as wide, in warm areas. It has deep lavender-blue flowers that will bloom profusely in early summer and then sporadically throughout the growing season. If sheared back after the first flush of bloom, another significant bloom can be expected, but your plant will not get as large as it might. Shearing also refreshes the foliage.An aromatic member of the mint family, Nepeta ‘Walker’s Low’ is not attractive to deer. In fact even cats are indifferent to it. However, it is a magnet for butterflies, hummingbirds and especially bees.Because of its self-sufficiency and lack of pests and problems, catmint is an ideal perennial for new gardeners. Veteran gardeners are probably already aware of nepeta’s versatility in the garden, from its popular partnering with roses to the softening effect it has on hard edges. Chinese snowball viburnum This is a favorite southern shrub which is commonly called Chinese Snowball. The real name is Viburnum macrocephalum 'Sterile'. The large showy blooms are often confused with hydrangeas' large mophead flowers because they look so similar. Chinese Snowball is only cold hardy in USDA Zones 6 to nine. It's a deciduous shrub except for the southern most zones where it remains evergreen.
These are large shrubs growing 12 to 20 feet tall and almost as wide. If you have a smaller suburban yard, then you'll only need to plant one of these spring show-off shrubs for visual impact. But for large landscapes, plant a row of Viburnum for a magnificent show in the spring. The huge flower heads it creates in April and May is what make Chinese Snowball worth having in the landscape.The large flower heads start out lime-green before they change to white. The blooms on the Chinese Snowball get 6 to 8 inches across. The flowers are sterile on the shrub so it won't produce fruit. Some Viburnums have fragrant blooms but this one is not fragrant. They're so spectacular that it doesn't matter, and those with fragrance sensitivities will appreciate having the beauty without an aroma. They make a wonderful arrangement in a large vase. Use clean sharp clippers and cut the blooming branches of Chinese Snowball at the desired length. Take a bucket or watering can with you and put the cut branches in water immediately. Once you take them inside, re-cut the branches at an angle and place in the vase with fresh water.Keep this shrub's large size in mind when you choose a location to plant your Viburnum. If it's going to be in a mixed border with smaller shrubs or perennials, then be sure to plant it at the back so the height won't hide other shrubs or plants. It can also be pruned into the shape of a small tree as it grows. Just allow more top growth and keep the trunk trimmed free of branches. This will also allow more sunlight to reach any plants that are growing near the base of the shrub.Viburnum will grow best in sun to part shade. In the hottest lower southern zones, it needs shade in the afternoon. A slightly acid soil is best but it can tolerate other soils. Fertilize the shrub when you first plant it and again each year when it finishes blooming. This is also the time to prune the shrub if you want a more rounded shape. Food chains Malbar leaves: Pomogrante: Corn Corn Ear worm European corn borer corn sap beetles Worms Seed Corn
Maggots Raccoons Hawks Birds Coyotes Bobcats Cougars Cucumber Two Spotted Spidermite Aphids Leafhoppers Pickle Worms Cut Worms Cabage Lopper Squash Vine Borer Hamster Leaf Minners Stink Bugs Cucumber Bettels Birds Lady bug Ants Lizards Hawks Lacewings Lacewings Ants Lizards Hawks Wasp Mice Snakes Lacewings Hawks Lizards Ants Wolf Cat Birds Snakes Hawks Mole Wasp Mice Spider Bats Sweet Potato Weevil Bugs Stemborer Horn Worms White flies Aphids Plant hoppers Thrips Mites Army Worms Ear Wigs Ants Ground Betles Spiders Lizards Hawks Leaf Floders Ear Wigs Dragon Flies Wasp Ants Lizard Hawks Mice snake Spiders Ear Wigs Laybird beetles Ground Beetles Rove Beetles Wasp Mice Snake Hawks Bats spider Flies Musadfurat Raptorellus Lady Bug Ants Lizard Hawks Lacewing Lady Bird Beeles Lacewing Ants Lizards Hawks Lady Bird Beeles Wasp Mice Snakes Ground Beettles Tortoises bell Beetles Flies Museidfurdl Raptorellus How humans inpact the gaden Humans can inpact the garden by playing in the garden ares Humans can inpact the garden by littering the garden area Humans can inpact the garden by plucking the friuts and flowers Here are some class observtion pictures Interactions Ground beetel lives in the soil PLants need Water to make Photosynthesis Plants need sunlight to make food Leafminers lives in Leaves Leaffolders live in folded leaves Animals eat insects and plants How the garden canal each impact one and other The snakes in the canal might move into the garden. We might not have to water the plants beacuse the plants might use the water in the canal The frogs and Toads in the canal might come into the garden Malbar leaves ,pomegrante ,corn ,and cucumber Birds, ants ,hamsters ,stink bugs ,leaf hoppers ,Aphids ,two-spotted spider mite ,Leafminers ,Squash vine borer ,Cabbage looper strips ,Cutworms ,Cucumber beetles ,Pickleworms ,Raccoons ,Seed Corn Maggots ,Wire worms ,corn sap beetles ,European corn borer ,Corn Ear worm. Ants ,birds ,Cougars ,Bobcats ,Coyotes ,Hawks , Lacewings ,Lady bug ,ants ,wasp ,snakes ,mole ,cat ,wolf. Lizards ,mice ,bats ,spiders Snakes and hawks Hawks Sites we have used https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7Vje9-G4Rw https://www.google.com/ http://frogsncats.com/html/plants/stories/spinach.htm http://veggieharvest.com/vegetables/index.html