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Spanish in the SouthwestCarmen Silva-Corvalan

Presentation for American English 514 April 12, 2010
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dallas waxler

on 29 April 2013

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Transcript of Spanish in the SouthwestCarmen Silva-Corvalan

More than 18% of the population of the Southwest states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas claim Spanish as a home language.

According to the 1990 Census, 73% of those who identified themselves as speaking Spanish at home, also said they speak English well. Spanish in the Southwest The maintenance of Spanish in the Southwest depends more on continued in-migration rather than on its transmission from one generation to the next.

REMEMBER this fact!!! Yes, the author chooses to use the term "Hispanic." The reason is because the US Census Bureau uses it to refer to US citizens or residents of Spanish American or Spanish ancestry. However, the author notes that perhaps the majority of those for whom the term is intended prefer the term "Latino." US Census Data There is no more heterogeneous ethnic group in the United States than the Spanish-speaking.

McWilliams, Carey. 1990. North from Mexico. New edn., updated by Matt S. Meier. New York: Greenwood. . The Hispanic population of the Southwest, unlike that of the Northeast, dates back to the sixteenth century. The 2000 US Census showed that 12.5% of the population of the United States is of Hispanic origin. Estimates are that by the year 2010 (Hello!!) Hispanics will be the nation's largest minority ethnic group. By 2050 Hispanics will make up 25% of an estimated total population of almost 400 million people. Hispanics are expected to add the largest number of people to the US population because of two main factors: high fertility rates and net immigration levels. This projected increase in the Hispanic population does not necessarily reflect a corresponding growth in the percentage of speakers of Spanish since there is also a huge shift to English once Spanish speakers settle in the United States. Consider that between 1980 and 1990 the percentage of Spanish speakers did not increase at the same rate as the Hispanic population. Colonial Spanish From the mid-1600s until the first half of the nineteenth century Spanish was the language of prestige. What about California?

California was thought to be too far away from the center of Mexico to develop a Spanish colony. When the first Spanish settlers came to the region in the second half of the eighteenth century, Spain was not as strong as it had been politically, economically, or militarily. Spain lacked the population and resources to colonize Alta California. The first mission in Alta California was founded in San Diego in 1769. By the 1840s there were twenty-one missions from San Diego to Sonoma. There were also four presidios and three pueblos, but the non-Indian population reached 7,000 at most. TIMELINE
1513 Spanish is first brought to what is now Florida by Ponce de Leon
1530s Spanish started exploring in Arizona
1536 Exploration of "Spanish Borderlands" of Florida, Louisiana, and the Southwest
1598 First permanent settlement in New Mexico
1659 Permanent settlement in Texas
1700 Even though the Spanish had started exploring in Arizona, it was not until 1700 that Jesuit missionaries founded the first mission in southern part of Arizona
1718 Establishment of a mission and presidio in Texas
1851 First permanent settlement in Colorado by New Mexican farmers to whom Mexico had granted land TIMELINE
The colonial Southwest depended politically on the Spanish Viceroyalty of Nueva Espana, which included what is now Mexico.


1810 Mexico declares independence from Spain
1821 Mexico secures independence
1836 Texas declares independence from Mexico
1846-1848 war between US and Mexico
1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes nearly all the territory now included in the states of New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California, Texas, and western Colorado to the United States
1845 Texas becomes a state
1850 California becomes a state
1876 Colorado becomes a state
English was declared the only language of instruction in public schools as well as the language to be used in the courts and in public administration in the newly admitted states.
1912 Arizona and New Mexico admitted to the Union. Possibly admitted after so many years because the majority of the population of those areas was Hispanic and the Spanish speaking majority made it difficult to impose English as the language of instruction and public administration. By the end of the 19th century there were about 100,000 Hispanics mostly concentrated in Texas. By the 20th century two waves of immigration from Mexico increased the population and the spread of the language and culture even beyond the Southwest.

What was behind these two waves of immigration?
The start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910
The end of World War II

Since that time there has been increased immigration from Central and South America.

Mexico-for economic reasons
Central and South America-both political and economic reasons What about the language?

Southwest Spanish is still spoken in parts of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. The colonial dialect is changing with the varieties brought in by these 20th century newcomers. However, it remains influential on Native American languages of the Southwest in the form of loanwords. Its influence on English is in the form of loanwords from geographical terms to political terms.

Spanish has borrowed from Indian languages as well. From Nahuatl it has claimed
coyote
chocolate
mesquite
aquacate
tomate
guajolote
elote

English and Spanish have influenced each other with the direction of influence changing depending on which language is more politically and socially dominant. Anglo settlers were also influenced by the language and culture of the Southwest.

These newcomers learned many of the Spanish words used in their new environment and adapted them using pronunciation and word formation rules of English. Some examples include:
adobe
patio
sombrero
vigilante
desperado
burro
mustang
bronco

Other words the Anglos adopted were
ranch (rancho)
buckaroo(vaquero)
vamoose(vamos) Southwest Spanish in the twentieth century Despite increased immigration from not only Mexico, but also Central and South America and Spain, the dominant Spanish dialects continue to be the Mexican varieties. Until the first half of the 20th century there were but two dialects of Spanish in the Southwest - the traditional Southwest Spanish and a northern Mexican dialect that shared many features with the Traditional Southwest dialect.

However, the increasing numbers of speakers immigrating from other dialect areas has had a great influence on Spanish during the second half of the 20th century. In California the influx of Central Americans has brought speakers who

use 'vos' (singular you) instead of 'tu'
aspirate the syllable-final s as in 'costa' (coast) being pronounced as 'cohta'
aspirate the syllable-initial s as in 'sopa' (soup) being pronounced as 'hopa'

These features are not known in most Mexican dialects. Since most Spanish speakers in the Southwest are from Mexico we can expect the Spanish to be a Mexican variety with influence from English.

Pejorative terms have been coined to identify the anglicized Spanish such as
Tex-Mex
border lingo
pocho
Spanglish. Confluence of dialects among first-generation immigrants leads to the formation of a 'koine' (a language variety that emerges when diverse dialects come into contact with each other and then lose some of their differentiating features to become more similar). An example of confluence of dialects is the change of the word-final -ng sound ('en agua' sounds like 'eng agua') among Hondurans who spent 20 months in contact with Spanish of the Northern Mexican variety. The Hondurans used the word-final -ng with much lower frequency. Anecdotal evidence reveals that there is also accommodation to Mexican vocabulary, especially among southern South Americans:
elote/choclo
aguacate/palta
yarda/jardin
zacate/cesped
pelo chino/pelo crespo CONFLUENCE of DIALECTS Influence of PACHUCO
A secret language associated with the Zoot-Suiters, gangs of Mexican workers who originated in El Paso at the beginning of the 1930s and spread to other Southwestern cities. Pachuco was used for about 30 years. It contains elements from non-standard Spanish of Spain and Mexico, from American English, and also from the language of gypsies, alongside newly invented words and expressions using an essentially Spanish grammatical structure.

Today's gangs identify less with Mexico and use less Spanish. They use terms like cholo or vato loco. Vocabulary that comes from Pachuco and is now more mainstream includes vato (guy), carnal (pal), ramfla (car), and placa (police) After English, SPANISH is the language spoken
most frequently in the United States A comparison of the data shows the percentage of increase of the Hispanic population and the percentage of Spanish-speakers from 1980-1990. Check it Out!

Percentage Increase of Percentage Increase
Hispanic population of Spanish speakers
from 1980 to 1990 from 1980 to 1990

New Mexico 21% 13%
Texas 45% 39%
California 66% 75%
Arizona 56% 44%
Colorado 25% 14%

TOTAL 55% 50% The increase in the number of Spanish speakers is
due to the continuous influx of immigrants from Spanish speaking countries rather than to the transmission of language to new generations of Hispanic Americans.

Did you remember to remember that? Measures for predicting the possiblity of maintenance or shift of a minority language

1) total number of individuals who speak the minority language at home (raw count)
2) proportion of these individuals in the total population (density)
3) proportion in the corresponding ethnic group (language loyalty)
4) rate of transmission of the minority language across generations (retention)

These measures, as taken from census data, are associated with income, education, occupation, and degree of integration into the mainstream culture The greatest numbers of individuals (raw count) who speak Spanish at home are found in California and Texas, however, the proportion (density) of Spanish speakers in the total population is greatest in New Mexico.

Counties in southern California, including Los Angeles County have the largest proportion of Spanish speakers in the Southwest.

The density of Spanish speakers in Los Angeles County is 29 percent. Over 2.5 million people speak Spanish at home of a total population of almost 9 million (according to the 1990 census)

Density seems to correlate with distance from the Mexican border, but distance has only a moderate effect on language loyalty.

Language loyalty is lower among younger Spanish speakers, thus reflecting the fact that there is a rapid shift to English.

Density and retention rates are higher in poorer and less well-educated counties.

The data support the claim that "to the extent that they (Spanish-claiming communities) gain more open access to quality education, to political power, and to economic prosperity, they will do so . . . at the price of the maintenance of Spanish, even in the home domain" (Hudson et al. 1995:182).



Hudson, Alan, E. Hernandez Chavez, and Garland Bills. 1995. "The Many Faces of Language Maintenance: Spanish Language Claiming in Five Southwestern States." In Silva-Corvalan, ed. Pp. 165-83. SPANISH as a SECOND LANGUAGE

Spanish is the most studied "foreign language"
in the United States in both secondary
schools and universities.


Spanish has acquired prestige as a symbol of ethnic and cultural roots and is being revived as the heritage language for native speakers.


Many colleges have introduced courses that emphasize the development of advanced reading and writing skills because these skills tend to be weak in a home-only language. Why is Spanish an important language in the U.S.? Immigration Pattern RESEARCH - LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE

Three groups
Group 1-immigrants who came to U.S. after age 12
Group 2-children of Group 1, or those who came to U.S. before age 12
Group 3-those with at least one parent in Group 2

Do you belong to one of these three groups? Which one?


Family Situations
Older children acquire only Spanish at home and maintain competence throughout life
Younger children acquire both Spanish and English at home and their use of Spanish differs from the norms of Group 1
Children who are close to grandparents (Group 1) may acquire Spanish at home but have limited proficiency

Language Use Declines Across Groups
Group 1-Spanish used exclusively with parents, grandparents, and siblings
Groups 2 and 3-variable usage of Spanish with parents and siblings

Language Loss
Due to highly infrequent use, used with family and close friends only, or neutral attitude toward maintenance

Language Maintenance
Due to intergenerational marriage of people from different groups LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF SOUTHWEST SPANISH
SPANISH of U.S. BORN HISPANICS

simplification of grammar and vocabulary
use of loanwords and semantic extensions
regularizing forms
changes in pronunciation
omission of subject-verb or noun-adjective agreement
code-switching between Spanish and English Borrowings from ENGLISH

no corresponding word or phrase in standard Spanish
technical or specialized vocabulary
words adapted from English
semantic borrowing from words that look or sound alike Negative Impression of SOUTHWEST SPANISH

Spanish spoken by U.S. born Hispanics is seen as very different from the Spanish of Group 1 (immigrants who came to U.S. after age 12)
Impression of lack of systematicity due to simplification of tenses, gender agreement, confusion in use of prepositions
Viewed as a "mixed language" due to intensive borrowing from English ATTITUDES of HISPANICS

Group atttitudes in Los Angeles (Silva-Corvalan's study)
All groups are generally favorable toward Spanish
Group 1-more favorable than groups 2 and 3
Groups 2 and 3-rejected "negative statements" about Spanish more than Group 1

Motive for maintaining language
For U.S. born bilinguals preserving tradition and cultural identity is not the most important motive
All groups see language maintenance as having intellectual value (speaking a 2nd language)

Conflict between language loyalty and commitment
Although Hispanics have positive attitude toward Spanish, the commitment to maintain language and culture is declining in Groups 2 and 3

Attitude toward English
Proficiency in English seen as a way to achieve social and economic mobility ATTITUDES of NON-HISPANICS TOWARD SPANISH

Political attitudes have been negative in recent years (e.g. rejection of bilingual education
Negative stereotypes about Hispanics
"Mock Spanish"-adaptations of Spanish-language expressions to registers of jocularity, irony, and parody ROLE of MEDIA

English Media
English language media has put forth positive images of Hispanics (e.g., as hard-working, family-oriented etc.) but has not promoted a positive attitude toward their bilingualism

Spanish Media
Growth in sources of Spanish-language communication (e.g., television networks, newspapers, magazines)
Spanish media promotes the language and culture.

And Juan observes that the media promotes nationalistic thinking (think USA v. Mexico). What do you think? Hispanics in the U.S. CONCLUSION

21st century Spanish in the Southwest is characterized
by complex sociolinguistic conditions:
Bilingualism
Individuals at various levels of proficiency and language use
Multiple dialects

Language maintenance may be dependent on:
Degree of new immigration
Commmitment of Hispanics to keep the language alive JUAN will tell you about immigration patterns and language development

So interesting! :-) THUYA will now tell you everything you need to know about language maintenance and attitude but were afraid to ask. Dallas will explain the background of Spanish in the U.S.

Verdad! What is the only state to show
an increase in the Hispanic
population AND an increase in the number of Spanish speakers?

What could be the reason for this phenomenon? Questions and Answers for the Spanish in the Southwest article by Silva-Corvalán

1.What two factors account for the fact that over the next 40 years Hispanics will add the largest number of people to the population of the United States? (206)

Birth rate and increased immigration

2.According to the article the predicted growth in size of the Hispanic population does not necessarily project a corresponding percentage of growth in the number of speakers of Spanish. Explain why this is so. (206)

The shift to English is massive once Spanish speakers settle in the U.S.

3.Although Spanish settlements were established throughout the Southwest from the late 16th century through the mid-18th century, California did not have a permanent mission until 1769. What reasons are given in the article for this? (207)

Spain was beginning to lose its economic, military, and political power and lacked the population and resources to colonize Alta California.

4.Until the first half of the twentieth century, there were two main dialects of Spanish in the Southwest: The traditional Southwest Spanish and a dialect of northern Mexico that shared many of the same features with Southwest Spanish. The influx of speakers from other dialect areas during the second half of the century made the language situation far more complicated. Explain what may happen when these multiple dialects converge. (209-210)

Confluence of dialects

5.The increase in the number of Spanish speakers is due more to immigration from Spanish-speaking countries than from transmission of the language to the new generations of Hispanic Americans. Identify and explain the four measures used to predict the possibility of maintenance or shift of a language. (211-212)

Count, density, language loyalty, retention

6.The article frequently stresses that there is one factor that contributes to the maintenance of Spanish in the Southwest. What is the factor? Do you agree? Why or why not? (208,211,212,213)

The increase in the number of Spanish speakers is due more to immigration from Spanish-speaking countries than from transmission of the language to the new generations of Hispanic Americans.

7.What are the most critical factors contributing to language loss for speakers at the lowest levels of proficiency? (215)

Infrequent use of Spanish, restriction of Spanish to family and friends, and a neutral attitude toward its maintenance.

8.What are some of the strategies that bilinguals develop during the process of using two different linguistic systems? (218)

Simplification of grammatical categories, transfer of forms or meanings from English, regularization of forms in Spanish, development of phrasal construction to replace complicated words, code-switching. Questions for the Spanish in the Southwest article by Silva-Corvalán

1.What two factors account for the fact that over the next 40 years Hispanics will add the largest number of people to the population of the United States? (206)


2.According to the article the predicted growth in size of the Hispanic population does not necessarily project a corresponding percentage of growth in the number of speakers of Spanish. Explain why this is so. (206)


3.Although Spanish settlements were established throughout the Southwest from the late 16th century through the mid-18th century, California did not have a permanent mission until 1769. What reasons are given in the article for this? (207)


4.Until the first half of the twentieth century, there were two main dialects of Spanish in the Southwest: The traditional Southwest Spanish and a dialect of northern Mexico that shared many of the same features with Southwest Spanish. The influx of speakers from other dialect areas during the second half of the century made the language situation far more complicated. Explain what may happen when these multiple dialects converge. (209-210)


5.The increase in the number of Spanish speakers is due more to immigration from Spanish-speaking countries than from transmission of the language to the new generations of Hispanic Americans. Identify and explain the four measures used to predict the possibility of maintenance or shift of a language. (211-212)

6.The article frequently stresses that there is one factor that contributes to the maintenance of Spanish in the Southwest. What is the factor? Do you agree? Why or why not? (208,211,212,213)

7.What are the most critical factors contributing to language loss for speakers at the lowest levels of proficiency? (215)

8.What are some of the strategies that bilinguals develop during the process of using two different linguistic systems? (218)







Questions and Answers for the Spanish in the Southwest article by Silva-Corvalán

1.What two factors account for the fact that over the next 40 years Hispanics will add the largest number of people to the population of the United States? (206)

Birth rate and increased immigration

2.According to the article the predicted growth in size of the Hispanic population does not necessarily project a corresponding percentage of growth in the number of speakers of Spanish. Explain why this is so. (206)

The shift to English is massive once Spanish speakers settle in the U.S.

3.Although Spanish settlements were established throughout the Southwest from the late 16th century through the mid-18th century, California did not have a permanent mission until 1769. What reasons are given in the article for this? (207)

Spain was beginning to lose its economic, military, and political power and lacked the population and resources to colonize Alta California.

4.Until the first half of the twentieth century, there were two main dialects of Spanish in the Southwest: The traditional Southwest Spanish and a dialect of northern Mexico that shared many of the same features with Southwest Spanish. The influx of speakers from other dialect areas during the second half of the century made the language situation far more complicated. Explain what may happen when these multiple dialects converge. (209-210)

Confluence of dialects

5.The increase in the number of Spanish speakers is due more to immigration from Spanish-speaking countries than from transmission of the language to the new generations of Hispanic Americans. Identify and explain the four measures used to predict the possibility of maintenance or shift of a language. (211-212)

Count, density, language loyalty, retention

6.The article frequently stresses that there is one factor that contributes to the maintenance of Spanish in the Southwest. What is the factor? Do you agree? Why or why not? (208,211,212,213)

The increase in the number of Spanish speakers is due more to immigration from Spanish-speaking countries than from transmission of the language to the new generations of Hispanic Americans.

7.What are the most critical factors contributing to language loss for speakers at the lowest levels of proficiency? (215)

Infrequent use of Spanish, restriction of Spanish to family and friends, and a neutral attitude toward its maintenance.

8.What are some of the strategies that bilinguals develop during the process of using two different linguistic systems? (218)

Simplification of grammatical categories, transfer of forms or meanings from English, regularization of forms in Spanish, development of phrasal construction to replace complicated words, code-switching.
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