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Logical Fallacies

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by

Laura Randazzo

on 7 March 2018

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies

Hasty Generalization
Logical
Fallacies
Flaws in reasoning used to try to bolster weak arguments.

Strong arguments
avoid
these fallacies.

Politicians, advertisers, debate opponents, and
even your friends will use some of these techniques
to try to sway you.




There are many logical fallacies.
Today, let's focus on 10 of the most common ones.
Don't be fooled!
1
An inference drawn from insufficient evidence
Ex: My new Toyota broke down, so all Toyotas must be poorly made.
Ex:
Click here
Faulty Causality
2
Incorrect assumption that because one event or action follows another, the first caused the second
Ex:
Correlation does not imply causation.
I dyed my hair red last week. This week, three other girls showed up to school with freshly dyed red hair. They must have made the change because they liked my hair.
Ex:
Click here
Either/Or
3
Slippery Slope
4
Bandwagon
5
Sentimental Appeal
6
Scare Tactics
7
Appeal to
8
False Authority
Ad Hominem
9
Straw Man
10
Unfair oversimplification of an issue by providing only
two options as a possible solution
Ex:
"If you aren't
first, you're
last."
– Ricky Bobby
Talladega Nights
Another example:
Click here
Exaggeration of the likely consequences of an action, designed to show that a misstep today could result in a disaster in the future
We can’t allow students to bring beverages into the auditorium. If we do, soon they’ll start bringing in snacks and then full meals. In no time at all, the place will be filled with trash, rats, and cockroaches. Good grief, we'd probably have to condemn the building!
Ex:
Ex:
Click here
Another example:
Click here
Arguments urging you to follow the same path that everyone else is taking
A classic strategy to sell to teens
And voters:
Note:
Citizen Change, a non-profit group founded by Sean Combs, also uses an either/or logical fallacy with this "Vote or Die" campaign.
Samsung Galaxy ad
Playing on readers' emotions to distract them from the facts
Ex:
ASPCA ads effectively designed to make you feel like a heartless jerk if you don't donate.
Another example:
Click here
Using fear to sway people by exaggerating possible dangers well beyond their statistical likelihood
Ex:
Politicians from both parties often claim that their opponent will ruin the quality of life of middle class voters.
Ex:
Click here
Presenting an unqualified person or institution as a source of credible information
Ex:
My sixth grade teacher said that girls will fall in love with a guy who knows how to dance. Therefore, if I want to win some hearts, I need to learn to dance.
Ex:
Click here
Really, what makes Peyton Manning and Justin Timberlake experts on technology?
Should we view them as authorities?
In Latin, this means "to the man."

Ad hominem occurs when an opponent attacks a person's character rather than the quality of his or her idea.
A specific type of ad hominem, called "tu quoque," occurs when you accuse your opponent of being a hypocrite instead of addressing his/her point.
Ex:
Political campaigns frequently use ad hominem attacks on rival candidates instead of staying focused on the real issues at hand.
Misrepresenting
or twisting
someone's argument so
it's easier to attack and knock down
Ex:
A straw man argument is set up here by Chipotle.
Yes, many college students eat cheap ramen noodles, but no one's arguing that ramen is the
only
food they should (or would want to) eat.
Click here
Another example:
From the film,
Thank You for Smoking
National Rifle Association ad, 2013
In 2012, ASPCA's CEO Ed Sayres was paid a salary of
Bernstein, Jacob. "Angst at the A.S.P.C.A." The New York Times. The New York Times, 29 June 2013. Web. 23 Dec. 2014.
Source:
The full picture isn't given, though.
$566,000.
This changes things, right?
Full transcript