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Transcript of Gases
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Diffusion and Effusion
Properties of a gas
Applying the Ideal Gas Law
Standard Conditions (STP)
1.0 atm, 273K
Standard Molar Volume
22.4 L (1 mol of gas at STP)
Gas doesn't matter
Created by gas molecules as they strike the surfaces around them.
Number of gas particles in a given volume (Concentration)
Volume of the container
Average speed of the gas particles (Temp)
Ideal Gas Law
By combing the gas laws we can write a general equation
Allows calculation of any variable if other 3 known
Density of a Gas
Density is ratio mass/volume
Density of a gas is generally given in g/L
Differences in air pressure result in weather and wind patterns
The higher in the atmosphere you climb, the lower the atmospheric pressure.
at the surface the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi (1 atm), but at 10,000 ft it is only 10.0 psi
is inversely related to
Graph of P vs. 1/V is linear
P x V = constant
is directly related to
Graph of V vs. T is linear
V/T = constant (if T measured in Kelvin)
directly proportional to the number of gas molecules (
V/n = constant
Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules.
The gas doesn't matter
is called the
Density at Standard Conditions
Density at Other Conditions
Density is directly proportional to molar mass
Easy to compare
Molar Mass of a Gas
One of the methods chemists use to determine the molar mass of an unknown substance is to heat a
sample until it becomes a gas; measure the temperature, pressure, and volume; and use the ideal gas law to calculate
moles of gas
What is different??
Combined Gas Law
1. Cancel out constant variables
2. Solve for unknown value
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Each pressure value can be calculated using the ideal gas law
Mole Fractions can also be used
The particles of the gas (either atoms or molecules) are constantly moving.
The attraction between particles is negligible.
When the moving gas particles hit another gas particle or the container, they do not stick;
There is a lot of empty space between the gas particles compared to the size of the particles.
The average kinetic energy of the particles is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature
When gases are mixed together, their molecules behave independent of each other
All the gases have the same volume
fill the container
All gases at the same temperature
Same average kinetic energy
Can often be thought of as one gas
The pressure of a single gas in a mixture of gases is called its
The sum of the partial pressures equals the total pressure
For gases in reactions we use the ideal gas law...
to find moles of a component from P, V, and T.
to find Volume from moles of a component.
Stoichiometry of Gases
Simplest model for behavior of gases
Since all the gas molecules in a sample can travel at different speeds we talk about the “average velocity” of the particles
however, the distribution of speeds follows a pattern called a Boltzman distribution
the method of choice for our average velocity is called the
In a gas mixture at a given temperature lighter particles travel faster, on average, than heavier ones
KE directly proportional to Kelvin Temperature
The process of a collection of molecules spreading out from high concentration to low concentration is called
The process by which a collection of molecules escapes through a small hole into a vacuum is called
Both rates are related to the average rms velocity
lighter gases both diffuse and effuse faster
Graham's law of Effusion