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Transcript of E-Waste: Disposal
Dispersed responsibility Methods of Disposal Landfills Key issues Atmospheric effect
Landfill fires In 2007 less that 10% of e-waste produces was reused or recycled.  this figure rose to 17.7% in 2009 Export of E-Waste Inspections of 18 European seaports in 2005 found as much as 47 present of waste destined for export, including e-waste, was illegal In the US, it is estimated that 50-80 percent of the waste collected for recycling is being exported Incineration and Fires Conclusion EU WEEE Directive:
"Electrical or electronic equipment which is waste...including all components, sub-assemblies and consumables, which are part of the product at the time of discarding."
"An electrically powered appliance that no longer satisfies the current owner for its original purpose."
E-waste refers to"...the reverse supply chain which collects products no longer desired by a given consumer and refurbishes for other consumer, recycling, or otherwise processes wastes." Definitions of E-waste Re-Using E-Waste Large Household Appliances
Small Household Appliances
IT & Telecommunications Equipment
Electrical & Electronic Tools
Toys, Leisure & Sports Equipment
Monitoring & Control Devices
Automatic Dispensers Waste Categories in Europe: Temperature exchange equipment
Screens and monitors
Small IT&T Amended Categories There are a number of Directives that have been implemented in different countries across the glode to address the WEEE issue.
- RoHS Directive
- WEEE Directive
-No federal Directives but individual states have implemented moves to address the issue
-tightening laws on importing WEEE Legislation Control of trans-boundary movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal
Was adopted 22-03-89 by the conference of Plenipentiaries in Basel, Switzerland
Was adopted after public outcry following the discovery in the 1980's in Africa and other developing countries of deposits of toxic waste imported from abroad.
Objective is to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous waste.
3 countries have not ratified this: USA, Haiti and Afghanistan BASEL Convention RoSH Directive
Aims to restrict certain dangerous substances commonly used in EEE. New EEE products on the EU market must comply with this Directive,
however some medical and military equipment are exempt.
polybrominated bophenyl (PBB),
polybrominated diphenly ether (PBDE)
In July 2011, directive was revised. Revision comes into effect in 2013.
The main changed from the revised directive include:
Previous categories with exemptions - category 8 medical devices and category 9 monitoring and control EEE will come under its scope in 2014
A new Category 11 which is “other EEE” not previously covered under any category will also come under the scope of RoHS by 2019
The old definition which encompassed the ‘primary function’ of EEE is now gone and any product with an EEE component or that is electrical or electronic for any of its functions will come under scope including cables and spare parts. Europe Hazardous Substances in E-waste Re-Using E-Waste This directive as establishes a framework under which manufactures of energy-using products will be obliged to reduce the energy consumption and other negative impacts that occur during the product life-cycle.
This forces producers to alter products at the design stage.
It aims to increase the security of the energy supply by making products more efficient. EuP Directive E-Waste increasing 3-5% every year
Re-Use Efficiently & Effectively
Practical Solution for Company This directive was founded on producer responsibility and aims to reduce waste, increase recovery and recycling and improve the environmental performance of products. ERP Collection WEEE Directive Generated WEEE Dismantling E-WASTE Collected WEEE Where we dismantling e-waste Structure and main steps of dismantling e-waste Recycled WEEE Prison Where we dismantling e-waste Requires manufactures and importers to the EU to take back their products from customers and ensure that they are deposed of using environmentally sound methods.
The target was for countries to aim for a return of WEEE of 4kg/year per person. Export to developing countries 1.The labor costs are very low(China $1.5 per day)
2.Environmental and occupational regulations are lax or not well enforced
3.It is legal in the U.S. New “electronics recycling facilities” Step 1: Toxic removal Structure and main steps of dismantling e-waste Laws & Legislation Step 2:Pre-processing Depollution and manual sorting
Automated sorting Step 3:End-processing Introduction A-Grade Solutions.inc
Take Back Programs
Safe Disposal Recent rating from Climate Counts scores A-Grade Solutions at 51% awareness International Corporation residing in 12 countries across the EU, America and Asia
Primary site in Ireland
Industry leaders in telecommunication equipment Green Initiative Our aim is to increase this score to 80% or above Recycling processes Pyrometallurgical Recovery Waste Management Best-of-2-world philosophy Waste Management——The Best-of-2-World philosophy Comparative scenarios and evaluation methods For the pre-processing stage
For the end-processing stage Shredding shredded by special equitment
-separated by magnets or vibration
-excellent separation of bulk metals, eg copper
-poorer at trace metals such as gold and platnium
-dust byproduct Add copper to high copper waste
-makes it easier to seperate other metals
-zinc and slag
-silenium, gold, silver and palladium
-works best on waste with high metal content. Bioleaching-
-uses bacteria and fungi to separate high value metals
T. ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans
-requires extremely small particles,
IPR is a refinement of EPR
Aims to enhance financial incentives
Achieved By: Reducing End of Life Costs
Design more sustainable, less toxic & easily recyclable electronics
Using fewer materials & designing products to last longer
These methods can reduce producers end-of-life costs
Complex electronics – Difficult to re-use or re-cycle
Re-Using & Recycling – Expensive if the product contains hazardous materials (E.g. CRT televisions)
Products to be more environmentally friendly & less hazardous
Must find the right balance
Improving product designs but also remain financially sound DELL Case Study Company who implement EPR & IPR efficiently & effectively.
Various Initiatives they have setup to re-use & reduce E-waste.
Allows customers to drop off computer equipment at over 2,600 “Goodwill” locations
“Goodwill” – Program that resells or responsibly recycles old technologies.
All equipment with potential reuse capacity is fully tested
Data on refurbished equipment is to be responsibly handled by re-furbishers that meet or exceed Dell’s standard
Where refurbishment is not a viable option:
Every reasonable effort is made to avoid waste from entering landfills, incinerators etc.
Contractually committed to employing environmentally responsible processes & practices in the recycling & disposal of materials Functionality Testing Dell Policy EPR & IPR place responsibility on our company to handle the entire life cycle of our products While doing so, we must also monitor the financial implications DELL is a good example of how to implement IPR efficiently EPR – Extended Producer Responsibility EPR Principals Producers have the greatest control over product design & marketing.
Greatest ability & responsibility for products
Reduce toxicity & waste
More Environmentally friendly products IPR – Individual Producer Responsibility Producers = financial & physical burden Disadvantages of EPR & IPR Financial Difficulties Laws & Legislation
Disposing E-waste 900-1000c
control of toxins
loss of materials Reduction
Volume lower temperatures
spread of toxins Dell Environmental Partners
Provide disposition services to include reuse, refurbishing, repair & recycling
Products are able to be refurbished & placed back on the secondary market
All applicable environmental, transportation and health & safety regulations are met Stockpile
Storage European Recycling Platform The EPR was established in 2002 by major electronic company's in the industry in relation the the EU Electrical and Electronic Equipment directive (WEEE)
It recycles 400,000 tonnes a year on behalf of 2300 members.
Came to Ireland in 2005 as the only only pan-European compliance scheme, providing WEEE and Waste Battery compliance and a B2B service to members
In 2011, they collected an average in the order of 8kgs of electronic waste per person in Ireland, over double the EU target of 4kgs per person. E-Waste at AGS.inc E-Waste refers to any electrical or electronic product that no longer fulfills its original purpose. It describes any old, end-of-life or discarded products that used electricity.
It is important that A-Grade Solutions knows how E-waste is managed throughout the different cycles, and to understand the problems that E-waste can cause. Key Issues to Address be continuously aware of Laws and Legislation's
ensure design concepts are able for disassemble, recycle and renewable.
review streams for disassembly, recycle, resuse
consider environmnal effects of materials used
EPR Re-Use Recycling Landfill Incineration Plasma Arc Gasification The use of a superheated (13900 C), charged stream of air.
-produces syngas and molten glass
-Expensive to initialize
-Not commonly used The directive was then redrafted and has altered the collection goals.
•Now four years after entering the Directive a 45% take-back rate on the weight of EEE products produced in the country must be achieved.
•After seven years this increases to 65% or 85% depending on the amount of WEEE generated in the country.
•The targets apply to all WEEE, including B2B and B2C.
•The categories types of EEE have been reduced from ten to six,
•There is no purchase necessary for the free take back of small household appliances to stores.
•Greater emphasis on reuse with minimum requirements outlined for the shipment of used EEE.. Redrafted Guiyu China 150,000 workers
$8/day illegal import 90% revenue for local gouvernements $75 million industry
1.5 million tonnes