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Timeline-Important Medical Discoveries
Transcript of Timeline-Important Medical Discoveries
Overview of Medicine
Medical history wasn't always an exact science. the first doctor was Hippocrates.
Illness related to gods and religion
Asclepius – god of medicine
Hermes – god for guiding the dead
Before reading and writing
Thought illness due to gods and evil spirits
Few surgery and unsafe
Bones not set well
Observe animal behaviors
•14th century to 17th century
•In the 15th century the print and press was invented which caused books to be published faster, since this happen, medical discoveries and knowledge could be spreader quicker
•16th century Europe, the scientific method came into use, this caused major changed in the way people thought about medicine and research
•the invention or the microscope allowed much more accurate observations if clients and symptoms
•Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was one of the first people to build a reflecting microscope
•during the Age of Enlightenment, a philosophical movement of the 1700s, studies of human anatomy took place
•(1700)- Francis Bacon used microscope to discover plaque fleas
•(1673)- Antonie Van Leewenhoek describes bacteria
0910- Persian physician Rhazes identified smallpox
1000- Surgery was considered as a profession
1200- Many hospital were built during 13th century.
1300- Islamic hospitals; health care for the sick
1346- Black Plague killed about 25 millions of people.
1489- Leonardo da Vinci first dissected copses
Bill Nye, the science guy...
· Smallpox was a major killer
· cowpox = no smallpox
· Sailors had scurvy
·Lacked certain nutrients
·Brown rice was healthier
·Lots of bullet infections during WWII
·It inhibits bacteria growth but doesn’t kill them
· First one called Prontosil
·For diabetic patient
·Discovered in 1900’s
Genetic Basic of Cancer
·Michael Bishop and Varmeu
·Found tumor causing genes were already in our cells
·Need something to switch it on
·Hijack immune system
·Susceptible to normal disease
Science of Human Anatomy - science of structures of human body
Blood Circulation- Blood being pumped through your veins and arteries by your heart
(william Hervey -Person who studied blood circulation)
Blood type(Blood group)- classification of blood based on presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells.
Anesthesia- temporary state consisting of unconsciousness, loss of memory, lack of pain, and muscle relaxation. (Before anesthesia was discovered, many people chose to die rather having a surgery.)
X-rays- Quick, painless test that produces images of the structures inside your body — particularly your bones. (Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen discovered x-ray. Doctors could find out the location of brokne bones and bullets inside the body.)
Germ Theory of disease- States that some diseases are caused by microorganisms. (Louis Pasteur discovered that microorganisms cause fermentation and diseases
Bill Nye, the science guy...
1) Trepanning was used to “cure” headache. This was one of those few surgeries done and was not safe.
A drill was used to scrape bone in a circular pattern until there was a hole so blood could flow out.
Besides “curing” headaches, trepanning could actually be effectively done to safe an individual from a club blow.
When hit by a club (the common weapon of the era), there would be pieces of bone and blood around the head. Trepanning was used to clear areas of bone which could cause infections.
Trepanning is still practiced today and there is debate over the extra flow of blood to that portion of the brain is beneficial or not.
2) Geophogy (eat dirt) can actually help and set bones. People ate clays and dirt when there was not enough nutrient.
Bones were set by covering the body part with clay and then hardening it.
By,Cayah,Ray, and Jin
•late 17th century to early 19th century
•introduction of machines, important economics changes, and progress medicine
•new diagnostic tools, such as a stethoscope, were invented
•blood cells, bacteria, and Protozoa could now be seen with microscope
•discoveries of the capillaries
•modern medical practice is based on the discoveries and development of the 19th century
•Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) carried out experiments that became the basis for modern microbiology (pasteurization of milk)
•Joseph Lister (1927-1913) insisted that the use of carbolic soap to disinfect instruments and hands before moving onto the next client (medical practice of asepsis)
•(1796)- Edward Jenner discovered 1st vaccination
•(1843-1910)- Robert Koch; discovery of pathogens
•(1847)- Ignaz Semmelweis shows importance of hand washing
•(1854)- John Snow stops outbreak of cholera
•(1897-1905)- Marie Cutie discovers science of radioactivity
•(1900-1909)- Bubonic plaque hits Sam Francisco
•20th century saw rapid growth in healthcare
•discoveries in electronics and computer science changed clinical medicine dramatically
•antibiotics were invented
•radium used for cancer treatment
•use of x-Ray gained importance I'm noninvasive diagnoses
•development of computed axial tomography (ct scan), magnetic imaging (MRI), and ultra sound or sonographic imaging has improved diagnosis and treatment for many diseases
•organ transplants are now common
•development of artificial organs is progressing
•vitro-fertilization allows infertile couples to have children
•research, technology, and improved care techniques combine to extend the horizon for healthcare
•electronic communication transmits information in the "blink of an eye" so know physicians and clients don't need to be in the same country to confer
•surgeries are performed with intricate computerized equipment
•miniaturization allows physicians to put a tiny camera as well as instruments into the body to preform surgery through small incisions
•(1930-1960)- first HMO insurance
•(1928-1945)- Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin
•(1952)- Salk discover polio vaccine
(1981-1986)- AZT is used to combat AIDS
•(1980)- WHO declares smallpox eradicated
•(2001)- Steve Thomas used sterile maggots for infectious wound treatment
1.)Chicken pox is among the 25 know strands of the heroines virus
2.) the first test tube baby was born in England, 1978. The first baby that was born from a frozen embryo was born in 1984
Two interesting medical facts
1) During the plague in the Middle Ages, some doctors wore a primitive form of biohazard suit called “plague suits”
2) Before the mid-19th century dentures were commonly made with teeth pulled from the mouths of dead soldiers.