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Armaan Singh

on 18 December 2013

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Transcript of Neurons!

Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig, and Robynne Boyd. "How Your Brain Works" 06 June 2001. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/brain.htm> 09 September 2013.
Gregory, Michael J., Ph.D. "The Nervous System: Neurons." Neurons. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Sept. 2013.
Stufflebeam, Robert. "Neurons, Synapses, Action Potentials, and Neurotransmission." The Mind Project. N.p., 2008. Web. 09 Sept. 2013.
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Rennie, John. "The Speed of Neurons: A Study In Contrasts." The Speed of Neurons a Study in Contrasts Comments.
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A S Kopin, M B Wheeler, A B Leiter Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 March
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How fast signal travels?
Structure of a neuron
Dendrites - The receiving end of a neuron.
The soma, or cell body, of the neuron is where electrical signals are passed on through
The axon hillock is at the end of the soma.
The axon is an extended fiber connects the soma and the axon terminals
Axon Hillock
The axon hillock is located at the end of the soma. Its main function is to control the propelling of a neuron.
If the energy of the signal overcomes the limitation of the axon hillock, it fires a signal through the axon.
Fun Facts 1
They are the receiving end of a neuron. The dendrites contain synapses and they transmit information to the cell body.
The soma is where the electrical signals pass through in order to get to the axon terminals.

The soma do not take part of the transmitting process but they are responsible for keeping the neurons alive. They possess a mitochondria, which the cell uses to maintain itself.
Saltatory Conduction
It is a type of a nerve impulse conduction. The saltatory conduction (French, "saltare", means "to leap") allows action potentials to travel quicker and efficiently.
Human have an average amount of
100 Billion
Can range from
1 centimeter
1 meter
Axon & Myelin Sheath
The larger the diameter the faster it travels.
Diameter range from 1~20 micrometer
120 meter per second
Axon Terminals
They are located at one end of a neuron
They carry out the role of transmitting messages to other neurons
The use of neurotransmitters allow signals to jump across the synapse and into the dendrites of another neuron
Also known as the "terminal buttons".
The Sodium-potassium pump will pump 3 sodium ions out with 2 potassium ions being pumping into the neuron
Electrical Property
This way neuron will
have unbalanced charges
result in a electric pulse
Neurotransmitter are fired when Axon terminal is excited.
The neurotransmitter is sent through a gap to receptor.
Chemical Property
Through the use of the saltatory conduction, electrical signals can jump from one neuron fiber to another neuron fiber without going through the whole length of the axon.
Important Function
The most important function of a neuron is to communicate with each other and it occurs in the Central Nervous System.
There are billions of neurons firing in our brain and this is how neurons communicate. The CNS is composed of the neuron and glia. Neuron’s basic function is to receive input information and transfer them to another neuron. There are 50 times more glia than neurons in our CNS, glia provides support to the neurons. It’s like a wall that allows neurons to stay connected.

Types of Motor Neuron Diseases
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Progressive bulbar palsy
Post-polio Syndrome
Few types of Neurons
It is a very serious neurological disease that mainly causes muscle weakness and can cause disabilities, eventually leading to death.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
1 in 3 people are affected.
Progressive Bulbar Palsy
Sensory neurons tells the brain about the internal and and external environment, sends receptors to the central nervous system (CNS)
Motor neurons contracts our muscles by the CNS sending impulses to the muscles.
Communication neurons sends a signal from one place to the other in the brain.
Computation neurons are the largest group of neurons. This processes the information that comes in from our senses.
Interneurons sends impulses between sensory and motor neurons.

Affects 1 in 5 people
Affects the brain stem and affects the muscles around the throat and jaw.
Speaking, chewing, or swallowing will be significantly harder as they are weakened.
Post-polio syndrome
Affects only people who have had poliomyelitis
The disease starts destroying the motor neurons. People with this disease face muscle weakness, fasciculation, and pain in muscles and joints.
8 Type of Neurotransmitters

Secretin help adjusting the body pH in order to keep body from being too acidic or basic
- Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid
- It have direct relation to contraction of musle
- Help maintain a posture
- Influences Movement, learning, attention and emotion.
- Too much linked to schizophrenia
Mirror neurons
- Plays a major role in excitatory neurotransmitter
- Involved in memory
- Oversupply may cause migraine and seizure
- Trigger response to body damages
- Major role in inflammatory responses
Adoped from <"http://writing.wisc.edu/blog/wp-content/uploads/mirror-neuron1.jpeg">
- Mirror Neurons
- Axon & Myelin Sheath
- Enable muscle Action
- Learning
- Memory
- Affects mood , hunger, sleep, and arousal
- Not enough serotonin will cause depression
- Help control alertness and arousal
- Too less will result in depress mood
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