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The American School Counselor Association National Model
Transcript of The American School Counselor Association National Model
History of Counseling Profession
and focus on vocational guidance
Frank Parsons and Alfred Binet
National Vocational Guidance Association formation in
E.G. Williamson expanded Parson's theory to create the first trait and factory theory
Carl Roger's published Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice
ASCA was formed and school counselor training was focused on 1-1 counseling
launch of Sputnik which spawned the National Defense Education Act
There were vast and ever changing responsibilities that came with each new decade, making it understandable that school counselors struggle with role ambiguity and incongruence. (Lambie & Williamson, 2004).
The ASCA National Framework serves as a guideline to implementing a comprehensive school counseling program that is embedded into the schools mission, driven by data, and based on standards that promote student development (Wittmer & Clark, 2007).
The ASCA model consists of four components
Further Description of Model
The ASCA recognized that serving students at varying developmental levels require differentiated support. Below is the suggested time allotment for each level (Wittmer & Clark, 2007):
Hatch & Stuart (2008) Counselor Beliefs Study
ASCA Model and Cultural Competency
Response to Framework
Recent Evolution of School Counselor Role
Design and deliver comprehensive school counseling programs that are integral to the schools academic mission (Wittmer & Clark, 2007):
In order to successfully implement a comprehensive program, counselors must have possess the following skills (Wittmer & Clark, 2007):
Commitment to Systemic Change
The purpose of the Foundation component is used to ground all stakeholders in a common vision, ensure alignment with the school, and identify personal beliefs regarding students and the communities we serve (ASCA, 2003).
The foundation component encompasses the following items
The services that counselors provide are outlined by the Delivery component (ASCA, 2003):
Counseling Core Curriculum
Individual Student Planning
Indirect Student Services
Referrals, community outreach, parent and teacher collaboration
The Management component describes the systems, resources, and responsibilities counselors must manage in order to ensure program alignment to student needs (ASCA, 2003).
Examples of Management elements are as follows:
Time management and organizational systems
Principal/counselor annual agreement
The Accountability component describes a counselor's responsibility to demonstrate effectiveness through structured program evaluation (ASCA, 2003).
There are multiple ways counselors can show impact on student achievement, such as:
The Program Audit Tool
School Counselor Performance Standards
Various results reports
Appropriate vs. Inappropriate Counselor Actions
The unique counselor role when serving early adolescent students:
Begin transition counseling a year prior to entering middle school
Increased focus on supporting adjustment
Remaining cognizant of influence on student self-esteem
Admiring effort and persistence as opposed to innate skill
Motivational Enhancement Therapy
Increased collaboration with parents, teachers, and school
personnel to promote student achievement
Wigfield, Lutz, and Wagner (2005) Middle School Years Study
Surveyed 3,000 ASCA counselors to determine investment and belief regarding importance of ASCA model components.
Results revealed that school counselors believed all components were at least moderately important, however there was significant variability on specific components
The highest rated components included:
developing explicit goals for the program
addressing the counselor/student ratio
The lowest rated components included:
importance of using school data to identify achievement gaps
monitor students' academic development
monitor students' personal/social development
Methods for incorporating culturally relevant strategies into various components of ASCA model (Viallalba et. al, 2005)
Analyze personal beliefs
Examine how program and school-wide mission accommodate and respect student culture
Find ways to promote student culture (i.e. cultural fairs, talent shows etc)
Advocate through creating partnerships with community organizations
Inform students and families of the role and services offered
Consistent focus on cultural perspective
Possible focus on group counseling and/or psychoeduation
Use specific group data to inform the best way to support students and create targeted action plan
Continue collaboration with school staff to increase outcomes
What ways do you think counselors could serve as both advocates for students and for the school counseling profession?
How might school counselors be able to avoid common pitfalls with this role (i.e. administrative duties, testing etc)?
What aspects of the national framework would have to be tailored to meet the specific needs of a school community?
American School Counselor Association. (2003). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, Va: Author.
Hatch, T. & Stuart, F. (2008). School Counselor Beliefs About ASCA National Model School Counseling Program Components Using the SCPCS. Professional School Counseling
Lambie, G. W. & Williamson, L. L. (2004). The challenge to change from guidance counseling to professional school counseling: a historical proposition. Professional School Counseling 8(2).
Sink, C. A., (2005). Comprehensive School Counseling Programs and Academic Achievement -A Rejoinder to Brown and Trusty. Professional School Counseling. 9(1), 9-12
Villalba et. al, (2005). Promoting Latino Student Achievement and Development through the ASCA National Model .
Professional School Counseling,
Wigfield, A., Lutz, S., Wagner, L. (2005). Early Adolescents' Development Across the Middle School Years: Implication for School Counselors. Professional School Counseling. 9(2), 112-119.
Wittmer, J & Clark, M (2007).
Managing Your School Counseling Program: K-12 Development Strategies
. Minneeapolis, Minnesota: Education Media Corporation