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The American School Counselor Association National Model

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Jennifer Giles

on 2 September 2014

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Transcript of The American School Counselor Association National Model

The American School Counselor Association National Model
History of Counseling Profession


Early 1900's
and focus on vocational guidance
Frank Parsons and Alfred Binet

National Vocational Guidance Association formation in
1913

1930's
E.G. Williamson expanded Parson's theory to create the first trait and factory theory

1940's
Carl Roger's published Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice

1950's
ASCA was formed and school counselor training was focused on 1-1 counseling

1957
launch of Sputnik which spawned the National Defense Education Act

There were vast and ever changing responsibilities that came with each new decade, making it understandable that school counselors struggle with role ambiguity and incongruence. (Lambie & Williamson, 2004).
ASCA Model
The ASCA National Framework serves as a guideline to implementing a comprehensive school counseling program that is embedded into the schools mission, driven by data, and based on standards that promote student development (Wittmer & Clark, 2007).

The ASCA model consists of four components
Foundation
Delivery System
Management System
Accountability
Further Description of Model
The ASCA recognized that serving students at varying developmental levels require differentiated support. Below is the suggested time allotment for each level (Wittmer & Clark, 2007):
Current Research
Hatch & Stuart (2008) Counselor Beliefs Study
ASCA Model and Cultural Competency
Response to Framework
References
Recent Evolution of School Counselor Role
Foundation
Delivery
Management
Accountability
Design and deliver comprehensive school counseling programs that are integral to the schools academic mission (Wittmer & Clark, 2007):
Comprehensive
Developmental
Preventative

In order to successfully implement a comprehensive program, counselors must have possess the following skills (Wittmer & Clark, 2007):
Leadership
Advocacy
Collaboration
Commitment to Systemic Change
The purpose of the Foundation component is used to ground all stakeholders in a common vision, ensure alignment with the school, and identify personal beliefs regarding students and the communities we serve (ASCA, 2003).

The foundation component encompasses the following items
Program Focus
Student Competencies
Professional Competencies

The services that counselors provide are outlined by the Delivery component (ASCA, 2003):
Counseling Core Curriculum
Gap curriculum
Guidance curriculum
Individual Student Planning
Responsive Services
Indirect Student Services
Referrals, community outreach, parent and teacher collaboration
The Management component describes the systems, resources, and responsibilities counselors must manage in order to ensure program alignment to student needs (ASCA, 2003).

Examples of Management elements are as follows:
Time management and organizational systems
Advisory council
Student data
Principal/counselor annual agreement
Action Plans
The Accountability component describes a counselor's responsibility to demonstrate effectiveness through structured program evaluation (ASCA, 2003).

There are multiple ways counselors can show impact on student achievement, such as:
The Program Audit Tool
School Counselor Performance Standards
Various results reports
Appropriate vs. Inappropriate Counselor Actions
The unique counselor role when serving early adolescent students:
Cognitive changes
Biological changes
Identity development
Academic Motivation
Relationships
Recommended changes:
Begin transition counseling a year prior to entering middle school
Increased focus on supporting adjustment
Remaining cognizant of influence on student self-esteem
Admiring effort and persistence as opposed to innate skill
Motivational Enhancement Therapy
Increased collaboration with parents, teachers, and school
personnel to promote student achievement
Wigfield, Lutz, and Wagner (2005) Middle School Years Study
Surveyed 3,000 ASCA counselors to determine investment and belief regarding importance of ASCA model components.
Results revealed that school counselors believed all components were at least moderately important, however there was significant variability on specific components
The highest rated components included:
developing explicit goals for the program
addressing the counselor/student ratio
The lowest rated components included:
importance of using school data to identify achievement gaps
monitor students' academic development
monitor students' personal/social development
Methods for incorporating culturally relevant strategies into various components of ASCA model (Viallalba et. al, 2005)
Foundation
Analyze personal beliefs
Examine how program and school-wide mission accommodate and respect student culture
Find ways to promote student culture (i.e. cultural fairs, talent shows etc)
Advocate through creating partnerships with community organizations
Delivery
Inform students and families of the role and services offered
Consistent focus on cultural perspective
Possible focus on group counseling and/or psychoeduation
Management Systems
Use specific group data to inform the best way to support students and create targeted action plan
Continue collaboration with school staff to increase outcomes
What ways do you think counselors could serve as both advocates for students and for the school counseling profession?

How might school counselors be able to avoid common pitfalls with this role (i.e. administrative duties, testing etc)?

What aspects of the national framework would have to be tailored to meet the specific needs of a school community?
American School Counselor Association. (2003). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, Va: Author.

Hatch, T. & Stuart, F. (2008). School Counselor Beliefs About ASCA National Model School Counseling Program Components Using the SCPCS. Professional School Counseling

Lambie, G. W. & Williamson, L. L. (2004). The challenge to change from guidance counseling to professional school counseling: a historical proposition. Professional School Counseling 8(2).

Sink, C. A., (2005). Comprehensive School Counseling Programs and Academic Achievement -A Rejoinder to Brown and Trusty. Professional School Counseling. 9(1), 9-12

Villalba et. al, (2005). Promoting Latino Student Achievement and Development through the ASCA National Model .
Professional School Counseling,
10, 464-474

Wigfield, A., Lutz, S., Wagner, L. (2005). Early Adolescents' Development Across the Middle School Years: Implication for School Counselors. Professional School Counseling. 9(2), 112-119.

Wittmer, J & Clark, M (2007).
Managing Your School Counseling Program: K-12 Development Strategies
. Minneeapolis, Minnesota: Education Media Corporation
http://www.psca-web.org/New_Folder/PA%20Companion%20Guide/Program%20Audit.pdf
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