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Digestion & Nutrition

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Sarah Blechacz

on 31 January 2017

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Transcript of Digestion & Nutrition

Digestion & Nutrition
Some Current Dietary Trends
Excretory System
Large intestine
- Carries waste for elimination and absorbs water.
What are foods made of?
The basic organic compounds of foods and beverages are:

Most food in the modern world is LOADED with sugar and lacks essential nutrients
You probably don't need any more than you're already getting!
Reacted positively with Benedict's solution
Preferred fuel= glucose (a simple sugar)
Which foods tested positively for sugar and starch?
Chains of glucose units (aka Glycogen)
Fats are made up of

3 Fatty Acids+Glycerol
A color change and reaction during the Biuret test.
Consists of a highly complex chain of amino acids
There are 20 different kinds of amino acids.
R= a side branch that differs between all amino acids
pH= "Potential for Hydrogen"
The pH/acidity of the body is affected by what foods you are eating and respiration.
A high acidity= A low pH
It is best to balance out your bodies acidity by eating a balance of food that reflect both sides!
Necessary for endurance
Requires less oxygen to break down than fat and protein do...
Storing sugar in your muscles reduces your need for oxygen so you exercise faster with more endurance!
During Exercise...
Before carbohydrates can be absorbed into your bloodstream, they must first be broken down into simple sugars
Human intestines do not permit combination sugars to pass into the bloodstream, so the best thing to do right before you exercise is eat simple sugar and not starch!
During Exercise...
(simple carbohydrates)
For everyday use...
(or complex carbohydrates)
They digest slowly
Keep blood sugar more stable than do simple carbohydrates
Often rich in fiber (more satisfying, healthy)
For Everyday Use...
The type of fat depends upon the arrangement of the atoms in the molecule.
Saturated fat= Single Bond
After Exercising...
Protein provides the amino acids necessary to rebuild muscle tissue that is damaged during intense, prolonged exercise.
It increases the absorption of water from the intestines and improve muscle hydration.
The amino acids in protein can also stimulate the immune system, making you more resistant to colds and other infections.
Unsaturated fat= Double Bond
Oils are hydrogenated to prolong their shelf life and make them more stable.
Has a higher melting point, and is often used in frying and pastries for this reason
Hydrogenated oils= Trans fat!
We're hard wired to want this stuff!
Sugars not readily available
Sugars everywhere!
(the idea behind carb loading)
Eat real foods for real health!
according to USDA guidelines, this is a balanced daily diet...
several competing, well-researched theories
both agree
biggest problem
, garbage foods
Caveman-Style (Paleo) Diet
Based on foods that our hunter-gatherer ancestors would have thrived on
*thrifty gene hypothesis
Higher protein
Lower carbohydrate & glycemic index
High fiber
Moderate/high fat intake
High potassium/low sodium
Net alkaline load
Higher intake of vitamins, minerals and &antioxidants from plants
Whole-foods, plant-based (vegan)
cereal grains
refined sugar
processed food
refined vegetable oils
grass-fed meats
fresh fruits and veggies
nuts & seeds
healthful oils
So what can you eat on Paleo?
whole grains
refined sugars, flours, & oils
no dairy-
no processed foods
no refined sugar
no legumes & whole grains for Paleo-
no animal-based products for vegan-
...so what should we do??
lots of benefits for both sides... not mutually exclusive
ex: Pima & Inuit
we're all biochemically unique
low glycemic & processed foods = definitely important
According to the USDA's "my pyramid" for healthy living, a 15 year old can eat:
cheese flavored crackers
chocolate pudding
chicken nuggets
bread roll
canned green beans
chocolate ice cream
cheeseburger on wheat bun
french fries
coca cola
Lets talk the pH of our bodies!
Mouth, teeth, and tongue-

The teeth crush food and the tongue pushes the food to the back for swallowing.
Salivary glands-
secrete saliva
Carries food down into stomach.
Gall bladder-
Stores bile.
pancreatic juices
(break down proteins, starches, and fats).
Small intestine-
Food is broken down into nutrients, which are absorbed by finger-like projections, called
, which line the small intestine.
Processes nutrients into a usable form and produces
(breaks down fat).
Churns and mixes food with
gastric juices
(begin to break
down food).
Anatomy & Physiology
Digestive System
Anatomy & Physiology
The Incredible Digestive System!
Does it matter when you eat carbs/fat/protein?
Nutrient Timing
Gastric Juices: Alkaline vs. Acid
"Sugar v. Fat"
AND... is it different for different goals? (ex: fat burning/athletic performance)
Read the two articles and then write a paragraph about whether you think nutrient timing actually matters... and for whom (ex: athletes-? obese people-?)
What did the lab show us?
Unfortunately, aspirin can also make your stomach hurt. To keep this from happening, researchers developed several different types of coatings to keep aspirin from being digested until after it has passed through the stomach and into the small intestine.
Gastric Acid is used in chemical digestion to break down food. Un-coated aspirin dissolves quickly.
Bile is a "base" that is produced in the liver. This "base" is used in the small intestine. Coated aspirin passes the acid and dissolves in the base. Does not upset stomach.
The human body has both acids and bases (alkaline) working hand-in-hand in different parts of the digestive system!
Acid Reflux (Heartburn):
*Caused by acid regurgitation into the esophagus.
Stomach Ulcers
An ulcer is the end result of an imbalance between digestive fluids in the stomach and duodenum.
painful sores or ulcers in the lining of the stomach
What can go wrong with gastric juices in the digestive track.
What's the deal with gluten?
What even
- extract waste from blood, balance body fluids
- tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
- muscular sac in the pelvis, stores urine, allows urination to be infrequent and voluntary
- functions as an exit from the body
How does blood flow through the kidneys?
How do kidney stones form?
And how can we prevent them?
Kidney Stone
- a hard mass formed in the kidneys, typically consisting of insoluble calcium compounds
What is in urine?
95% water

The contents of urine can vary depending of what you've eaten, drank, breathed or been exposed to.
Urea, uric acid, ammonia, hormones, dead blood cells, proteins, salts and minerals, and toxins.

Urochrome is a byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism by the liver and is eliminated through urine.
Dialysis Machine!
Makes your urine yellow!
What causes kidney stones to form?
The most common type of kidney stone contains
in combination with either
Caused by a decrease in urine volume and/or an excess of
stone-forming substances
in the urine.
(Our bodies always contain oxalates, and our cells constantly convert other substances into them.)
For example,
vitamin C
is routinely converted into oxalate
Fruits and leafy green vegetables also contain lots of oxalates
(Why you may not want to take supplements with mega-doses of vitamin C all the time!)
One study found that people who took high doses of vitamin C supplements DOUBLED their risk of getting a kidney stone! (The increased risk was seen only in those taking extra doses of vitamin C and not in those taking just a multivitamin.)

This study was done in Sweden, where most vitamin C supplements contain 1000 mg per tablet. The kidney stone risk was highest in those taking more than 7 vitamin C supplements per week.
Generally, foods that are higher in
, are also higher in phosphoate
How can we prevent them?
Inadequate fluid intake/dehydration
High intake of animal protein
A high-salt diet
Excessive soda consumption (high in phosphate)
Excessive intake of oxalate-containing foods
Low levels of dietary calcium intake may alter the calcium-oxalate balance and result in the increased excretion of oxalate and a propensity to form oxalate stones
Dietary factors and practices may increase the risk of stone formation in susceptible individuals.
Is there a "dark side" of eating lots of
Drink lots of water, eat a balanced diet, and don't overdo any one particular supplement or nutrient.
SO, to prevent kidney stones:
(These substances are naturally filtered out of our blood to maintain a stable pH)
Kidney Injuries for Athletes
Kidney rupture
is usually caused by a direct blow to the abdomen, side, or mid-to-low back, which causes damage or a tear to the organ
Most frequently seen with high-contact sports such as football, rugby, ice hockey, soccer, horseback riding, gymnastics, boxing, sledding, and skiing.
Chronic Dehydration
Excessive Protein Intake
Rhabdomyolysis & Kidney Failure
Even losing just 2% of your body weight in fluid can decrease performance by up to 25%.
Increases risk of kidney stones
~1.5 liters on average/day PLUS extra cup or so per 15 minutes of intense exercise
Scarring or hardening of the glomeruli -- blood vessels located in the kidneys.
Damaged glomeruli can't perform their job adequately. As a result, large amounts of protein from the blood leak into the urine rather than remaining in the bloodstream.
Long-term steroid users are at risk for
Recent dietary trends have led to a substantial increase in protein intake by many individuals.
Some dieticians are concerned that high protein intake may promote renal damage by chronically increasing hyperfiltration.
Rhabdomyolysis- breakdown of muscle fibers that leads to the release of muscle fiber contents (myoglobin) into the bloodstream.
Myoglobin is harmful to the kidney and often causes kidney damage.
Crossfit junkies
EXTREME over-exercisers
Who is at risk for rhabdomyolosis?
So what's worse... sugar or fat?
Start at 38 minutes
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
What about vitamins
Are needed in very small amounts to regulate chemical reactions in the body.
Do not provide energy, but they help our bodies use the energy from foods.

Some Essential Vitamins
Biological catalysts.

Proteins and some RNA molecules (examples?)
Induced Fit
The shape of the active site of an enzyme is shape-specific for a particular substrate.

The binding of a substrate to the active site induces the necessary shape change of the enzyme to catalyze the reaction.
The active site is localized to a small area of the enzyme
Most enzymes require accessory compounds many of which you are familiar with as ("
") or metal ions (aka "
") in order to be functional.
Magnesium ion (green) associated with rubisco's active site.
A manganese ion (dark green) is visible in the topoisomerase active site.
A common nomenclature suffix for enzymes.
prefix: usually refers to enzyme's substrate
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
B Vitamins
Vitamin C
Saliva Enzyme = Amylase
Vitamin A
protect cells from damage caused by substances called free radicals. (Free radicals are believed to contribute to certain chronic diseases and play a role in the aging processes.)
(produces the pigments in the retina of the eye) is an active form of vitamin A.
(It is found in animal liver, whole milk, and some fortified foods.)
Helps form and maintain healthy skin, teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, & mucus membranes
are pigments found in plant foods that can turn into a form of vitamin A.
There are more than 500 known carotenoids (ex:
... which is also an
Why do we need it?
And... it's good for your eyes!
So why does your mom always tell you to eat your carrots?
=fat soluble!
-The body does not need these vitamins every day and stores them in the liver and adipose (fat) tissue when not used.
-Megadoses of vitamins A, D, E or K can be toxic
Vitamin D
Why do we need it?
Your body must have vitamin D to absorb calcium and promote bone growth.
Where can you get it?
triggers the body to make vitamin D!
Fatty fish (like salmon, trout, mackerel, tuna, or eel) can be a good source of vitamin D.
And you get a bonus—heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids!
Fortified milk
Almost all types of cow's milk in the U.S. are fortified with vitamin D
Recent research suggests it may have other benefits, too, like protecting against colds and fighting depression!
Vitamin E
Why do we need it?
Vitamin E is necessary for structural & functional maintenance of skeletal, cardiac, & smooth muscle, & assists in the formation of red blood cells!
Improves immune system
Protects against heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, & some diabetes-related damage
Other benefits...
Where can you get it?
Vegetable oils
Sunflower seeds
Whole grains
Vitamin K
Why do we need it?
You can get Vitamin K1 from leafy greens and some other vegetables
Vitamin K2 is largely obtained from grass fed meats, cheeses, and eggs, and synthesized by bacteria (fermented foods!)
K1 plays a key role in helping the blood clot
K2 prevents bone loss
Where can we get it?
B Vitamins
Why do we need them?
The B vitamins, such as thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12, Niacin (Vitamin B3), and folic acid help the body with the health of red blood cells nerves, the heart, the brain & with making DNA.
Where can we get them?
Dairy products
Vitamin B-12 has been looked at as a treatment for many diseases and conditions like Alzheimer's , heart disease, breast cancer & high cholesterol!
Other benefits...
Vitamin C
Why do we need it?
Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is used to:
Form an important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels
Heal wounds and form scar tissue
Repair and maintain cartilage, bones, and teeth
Where can we get it?
Research shows that for most people, vitamin C supplements or vitamin C-rich foods DO NOT reduce the risk of getting the common cold...!?!
However, people who take vitamin C supplements regularly MIGHT have slightly shorter colds or somewhat milder symptoms... sorry!
All fruits and vegetables contain some amount of vitamin C... some sources that contain a LOT include:
Green and red peppers
Spinach, cabbage, turnip greens, and other leafy greens
Citrus fruits and juices, such as orange and grapefruit
Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries
Can vitamin C really help fight off colds?
What is a calorie?
it's the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1 °degree Celcius
How we use it
: to measure the energy value of foods
How do calories relate to weight loss?
3500 calories = 1 pound
But where does fat actually
when we lose weight?
Lets burn some food!
Lipids include:
fat-soluble vitamins.
steroid hormones
and bile acids.

Lipids: A heterogeneous class of naturally occurring organic compounds classified together on the basis of common solubility properties.
They are insoluble in water
Triglyceride: A glycerol with three fatty acids.
Unsaturated fatty acids have lower melting points than saturated fatty acids.
Higher Melting Point
Lower Melting Point
How does it work?
Milk is mostly water but it also contains vitamins, minerals, proteins, and tiny droplets of fat suspended in solution.
Dish soap, because of its bipolar characteristics (nonpolar on one end and polar on the other), weakens the chemical bonds that hold the proteins and fats in solution. The soap's polar, or hydrophilic (water-loving), end dissolves in water, and its hydrophobic (water-fearing) end attaches to a fat globule in the milk.
The molecules of fat bend, roll, twist, and contort in all directions as the soap molecules race around to join up with the fat molecules. During all of this fat molecule gymnastics, the food coloring molecules are bumped and shoved everywhere, providing an easy way to observe all the invisible activity. As the soap becomes evenly mixed with the milk, the action slows down and eventually stops.
Oils: Triglycerides rich in unsaturated fatty acids are generally liquid at room.
Fats: Triglycerides rich in saturated fatty acids are generally semisolids or solids at room temperature.
Trans fat = Decreases HDL (Good) cholesterol
Non Polar
How many calories do you burn during a 3 minute step test?
You can calculate this by converting workload or intensity to oxygen consumption (VO2)
VO2 is the best indicator of exercise intensity because it is tied closely to energy expenditure.
The higher the intensity, the more oxygen you consume and the more calories you burn.
Oxygen Uptake Measures We'll Use:
VO2reserve (VO2R) is the difference between VO2max and resting VO2.
VO2max is predicted from a submaximal test (many different tests- we'll use step test today)
Resting VO2 is constant for everyone (3.5 mL/kg/min)
Here's how to do it!
How to get caloric expenditure from VO2...
Multiply the VO2 value in ml/kg/min by your weight in kilograms. You will be left with a VO2 value in ml/min.

Divide this value by 1,000 to convert VO2 to L/min.

Once VO2 is in liters, you can calculate how many kcal clients are expending during exercise. For every liter of oxygen consumed, approximately 5 kcal are burned, so kcal can be determined from VO2 by using this conversion factor.
Once you have determined a client’s VO2max, you can calculate VO2R by subtracting resting VO2 (3.5 ml/kg/min) from VO2max.
Step up and down on the platform at a rate of 22 steps per minute for females and at 24 steps per minute for males.
Step using a four-step cadence, 'up-up-down-down' for 3 minutes.
Stop immediately on completion of the test, take your pulse for 15 seconds. (Multiplying this 15 second reading by 4 will give the beats per minute (bpm) value to be used in the calculation below.)
men: VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 111.33 - 0.42 x heart rate (bpm)
women: VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 65.81 - 0.1847 x heart rate (bpm)
Measuring the Calorie we Burn
A protein composite found in wheat, rye, & barley.
Helps foods maintain their shape, acting as a glue that holds food together.
For people with
celiac disease
, a gluten-free diet is essential.
For others who just want to be gluten-free for weight loss, may run the risk of a lack of vitamins, minerals, and fiber
About 1% of Americans have
celiac disease
. The condition, caused by an abnormal immune response to gluten, can damage the lining of the small intestine. That, in turn, can prevent important nutrients from being absorbed.
About going "gluten-free"
But there
seem to be an increasing number of people with gastrointestinal sensitivities... what's going on?
Lots of research is looking at common chemicals in our food, like
(The active ingredient in Roundup)
80% of GM foods are modified in order to be resistant to glyphosate
Look at the research and decide for yourself!
Weight loss
Improved insulin sensitivity
Longer lifespan (decreases in IGF-1)
Improves brain function
Improves immune system
Laron Syndrome
No IGF-1? No problem!
Calorie-restricted mice live longer!
Like this guy!
Remember me?
Calorie-restricted mice show improved memory & learning!
From age 4 to 18:
Carbs: 45-65%
Protein: 30%
Fat: 35%

Carbs: 45-65%
Protein: 10-35%
Fat: 20-35 %

Best Ratio of Carbs, Fats and Proteins!
Step 1
Men: V02 max = 111.33 - 0.42(HR)
Women: VO2 max = 65.81 - 0.1847(HR)
Step 2
VO2 max - 3.5 = _____
Step 3
Answer from last step x Weight (kg) = ______mL/min
Step 4
__________ mL/min
Step 5
___________L/min x 5 = ________ kcal/min
Step 6
___________ kcal X 3 = __________ Calories in 3 minutes of a step test!
Water-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins that are needed daily because they cannot be stored in the body.
Vitamin C and B
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins that are easily stored in fat within the body.
Vitamin A, D, E and K
Performs many functions in regulating the activity of cells.
Calcium, Iron, Potassium and Sodium
Mechanical Digestions- Physically breaks food into smaller pieces.
Chemical Digestion- Breaks down the food into simpler nutrients that can be used by the cells. Saliva contains an enzyme (amylase) that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates.
(An enzyme is a protein that can catalyze certain biochemical reactions)
Conventional wisdom about diets, including government health recommendations, seems to change all the time. And yet ads routinely come out claiming to have THE answer about what we should eat. So how do we distinguish what’s actually healthy from what advertisers just want us to believe is good for us?
How to spot a fad diet
Full transcript