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Vocabulary

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Alister Olson

on 17 July 2014

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Transcript of Vocabulary

Vocabulary
Vocabulary can be defined as knowledge of words and their meanings (Butler et al., 2010).
According to Miller and Veatch (2011), teachers should have three goals for effective vocabulary instruction:
#1. Build Full Concept Knowledge
Vocabulary can be developed by teaching conceptual understanding of words that are important in the content area (Miller & Veatch, 2011).

According to Allen (as cited in Miller & Veatch, 2011), students advance through four levels as they develop conceptual understanding:

Level 1
: No Association: I don't recognize this word,
and I have never heard it before.

Level 2
: Recognition: I recognize the word, but I
don't know what it means.

Level 3
: Partial Concept Knowledge: I have a basic
understanding of the word.

Level 4
: Full Concept Knowledge: I understand the
word and can use it flexibly in most contexts.
#2. Teach Words in a Meaningful Context
Reading comprehension can be strongly improved through vocabulary instruction, but according to Beck and McKeon (as cited in Miller & Veatch, 2011), this is not the case when the instruction is done out of context of content learning.
Teachers should therefore teach vocabulary in the context of their content area in order to increase comprehension and overall understanding (Miller & Veatch, 2011).
Vocabulary instruction can be taught
before
,
during
, or
after
readings.
#3. Encourage Independent Use of Strategies
As with all teaching, students should be empowered to be lifelong learners capable of building their vocabulary outside of the classroom.
Teachers should therefore teach students word learning strategies that they can use independently.
Adequate modeling of the strategies and scaffolding are vital to student success.
Strategy #6:
Contextual Redefinition
Strategies to Implement
Strategies to Implement
Strategies to Implement
Description
References
Bowers, P.N., Kirby, J.R. (2010). Effects of morphological instruction on
vocabulary acquisition.
Reading and Writing
. 23:515-537.
Butler, S., Urrutia, K., Buenger, A., Gonzalez, N., Hunt, M., Eisenhart, C. (2010).
A Review of the Current Research on Vocabulary Instruction
. National
Reading Technical Assistance Center. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/
programs/readingfirst/support/rmcfinal1.pdf
Fisher, P.J., Blachowicz, C.L.Z. (2005). Vocabulary Instruction in a Remedial
Setting.
Reading & Writing Quarterly
. 21:281-300
Miller, M., Veatch, N. (2011).
Literacy in Context (LinC): Choosing Instructional
Strategies to Teach Reading in Content Areas for Students in Grades 5-12
.
Boston, MA: Pearson Educational, Inc.
Schmitt, N., Jiang, X., Grabe, W. (2011). The Percentage of Words Known in a
Text and Reading Comprehension.
The Modern Language Journal
.
95(1):26-43.
[Untitled image of children reading]. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://
education.cu-portland.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/How-Reading-for-
Pleasure-Helps-Students-Develop-Academically.jpg
[Untitled image of words]. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://
discussions4learning.com/img/vocabulary.jpg
[Untitled illustration of concept of definition map]. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from
http://www.thinkdolearn.com/edit6190/concepts/images/annelid%20concept
%20map.jpg
[Untitled illustration of Semantic Feature Analysis] Retrieved July 11, 2014 from
http://www.prepit.org/reading/images/semanticFeatures.gif
[Untitled image of book]. Retrieved July 11, 2014 from http://
blog.timesunion.com/opinion/files/2011/05/0530_WVlibraries.jpg
[Untitled image of Vocabulary Rating Guide] Retrieved from https://
d14w9elxmqt4gn.cloudfront.net/adaptations/vocabulary-knowledge-rating-
sheet/2014-05-19_23:02-103_1884.JPG
According to numerous studies, a strong link exists between vocabulary and reading comprehension (Bowers & Kirby, 2010; Schmitt, Jiang, & Grabe, 2011).
Regardless of content area, student success will be strongly impacted by how much they comprehend while reading.
Teachers should therefore actively work to develop vocabulary knowledge in students.

Why Teach Vocabulary?
Instructional Goals & Strategies
[Untitled image of words]. Retrieved from http://discussions4learning.com/img/vocabulary.jpg
[Untitled image of children reading]. Retrieved from http://education.cu-portland.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/How-Reading-for-Pleasure-Helps-Students-Develop-Academically.jpg
[Untitled illustration of Concept of Definition Map] Retrieved from http://www.thinkdolearn.com/edit6190/concepts/images/annelid%20concept%20map.jpg
[Untitled illustration of Semantic Feature Analysis] Retrieved from http://www.prepit.org/reading/images/semanticFeatures.gif
Alister Olson
EEC 528
Dr. Lori Piowlski

[Untitled image of book]. Retrieved from http://blog.timesunion.com/opinion/files/2011/05/0530_WVlibraries.jpg
[Untitled image of Vocabulary Rating Guide] Retrieved from https://d14w9elxmqt4gn.cloudfront.net/adaptations/vocabulary-knowledge-rating-sheet/2014-05-19_23:02-103_1884.JPG
In addition to morphological analysis, students can use context clues to determine what an unfamiliar word means.
Contextual Redefinition involves searching surrounding sentences for synonyms, antonyms, definitions, and examples of the unknown word.
Effective scaffolding by the teacher is particularly important with this strategy, otherwise students can end up misinterpreting clues.
Internet Resources
Resource #1.
http://www.blwd.k12.pa.us/schools/es/readii/Shared%20Documents/Vocabulary/Contextual%20Definition.pdf

Provides a step-by-step overview of Contextual Redefinition
Cautions against using context clues alone
Example included
Resource #2.
http://www.wirticenter.com/strategiesbank/documents/Language%20K-5/L.VAU%20Contextual%20Redefinition.pdf

Describes how to implement Contextual Redefinition
Lists potential assessment methods
Resource #3.
http://www.lehsd.k12.nj.us/users/ckennedy/documents/DevelopingVocabularybyLearningContentAreaWords.doc

Discusses why dictionaries alone are insufficient when novel words are encountered
Provides an overview of Contextual Redefinition
Lists key steps involved with the strategy
Contains an example
Resource #4.
http://www.accelerating-literacy-learning.edu.au/images/Contextual-Redefinitions-Stop-and-Jot-HTG-ENGLISH.pdf

Summarizes Contextual Redefinition
Provides example and blank worksheet
Provides tips for when and how to use this strategy
Resource #5.
https://minds.wisconsin.edu/bitstream/handle/1793/63775/Thesis%20Combined.pdf?sequence=1

Notes the dangers of using only one strategy
Summarizes Contextual Redefinition
Provides results that indicated that Contextual Redefinition outperformed an alternative strategy in short-term testing, but did slightly worse for long-term recall
Strategy #5:
Word Analysis
Description
Regardless of the depth or breadth of a students' vocabulary instruction, they will encounter words they are unfamiliar with throughout their lives.
Students can be taught to use word structure to decipher novel words.
For example, word sorts can be used to group words according to their affixes. Class discussions can then be used to examine how the prefixes and suffixes affect each word.
Internet Resources
Resource #1.
http://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/issues/volume13/ej51/ej51a1/

A study that concludes that Morphological Analysis works even at the college level
Review of the literature that provides support for the strategy
Provides background information regarding which types of words are likely to challenge students
Cites research positively correlating morphological knowledge and reading skill
Resource #2.
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED158245.pdf

Examines word sorts, including both closed and open-ended
Resource #3.
http://wordworkskingston.com/WordWorks/Pete_Bowers_Research_files/published%20vocab%20paper.pdf

Reviews literature regarding morphological analysis
Study supports the use of this strategy
Resource #4.
http://education.wm.edu/centers/ttac/resources/articles/teachtechnique/teachingmorphology/index.php

Discusses benefits to learning about morphology and recommended instruction about the topic
Resource #5.
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/Thesis/Thesis-Al-Farsi.pdf

Provides a scholarly examination of morphological analysis, including support for the strategy and methods.
Strategy #4:
List-Group-Label
Description
In order to assure that vocabulary learning is not done in isolation, the List-Group-Label strategy can be used.
In this strategy, students are given a list of words
before
a reading that contains familiar and novel terms. Students are asked to group the words and label the groups.
During
and
after
the reading, students review and revise their groupings to ensure meaningful, relevant connections are being made.
Internet Resources
Resource #1.
http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/list_group_label

Lists benefits of List-Group-Label
Provides a step-by-step procedure
Addresses appropriate sequencing and context for the strategy
Contains examples for science and social studies
Addresses how to differentiate instruction with this strategy
Resource #2.
http://woodard.latech.edu/~kklopez/EDCI424/Vocabulary%20Handout.pdf

Summarizes the strategy, including explicit step-by-step instructions
Identifies appropriate sequencing for this strategy
Provides example
Resource #3.
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED258369.pdf

Describes strategy and instructions for both teachers and students
Identifies appropriate sequencing
Resource #4.
http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19780/

Provides summary of List-Group-Label
Lists benefits of the strategy
Describes how to employ the strategy
Identifies appropriate sequencing
Resource #5.
http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108037/chapters/C-=-Content-Reading-Strategies.aspx

Describes how List-Group-Label functions
Recommends use of the strategy as a diagnostic assessment
Addresses benefits of List-Group-Label for English Language Learners
Strategy #3:
Vocabulary Rating Guide
Description
Students assess their understanding of words
before
a reading, determine definitions, and then refer to these
during
the reading.
After
the reading, students reassess their understanding of the words.
Having students analyze their own understanding of words promotes metacognitive thinking.
Internet Resources
Resource #1.
http://education.ky.gov/curriculum/lit/Documents/kclm/vocabulary_rating_comprehension_strategy_teaching%20tools.pdf

Summarizes Vocabulary Rating strategy
Provides explicit, step-by-step procedure
Contains numerous examples
Lists alternative rating systems and a wide variety of blank rating guides ready for use in the classroom
Resource #2.
http://www.readingrockets.org/article/41555

Describes a variant of this strategy known as Vocabulary Knowledge Assessment (VKS).
Provides literature that strongly, positively correlated VKS scores with actual word knowledge
Resource #3.
http://olms1.cte.jhu.edu/olms/data/resource/8474/VKROrganizer.pdf

Cites primary literature supporting Vocabulary Rating Guides
Provides explicit step-by-step procedure in the context of a math lesson
Resource #4.
http://www.albionk12.org/forum/Vocab/VKRTool.pdf

Provides overview of Vocabulary Rating Guides
Describes recommended sequencing for the strategy
Provides step-by-step instructions
Makes connections to the Common Core
Resource #5.
http://woodard.latech.edu/~kklopez/EDCI424/Vocabulary%20Handout.pdf

Summarizes the strategy, including explicit step-by-step instructions
Identifies appropriate sequencing for this strategy
Provides example
Strategy #2:
Semantic Feature Analysis
Description
Semantic Feature Analysis is an instructional strategy used to develop conceptual understing by making relationships between terms visible to students (Miller & Veatch, 2011).
Internet Resources
Resource #1.
http://nycdoeit.airws.org/pdf/Semantic_Features.pdf

Summarizes Semantic Feature Analysis
Provides research supporting the use of this strategy
Contains a sample activity utilizing Semantic Feature Analysis
Lists additional resources
Resource #2.
http://www.adlit.org/strategies/22731/

Summarizes Semantic Feature Analysis, including benefits
Provides additional resources regarding the strategy
Resource #3.
http://fcit.usf.edu/fcat8r/home/references/additional-reading-strategies/semantic-feature-analysis.html

Summarizes the strategy
Provides a science example
Resource #4.
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED237969.pdf

Provides primary literature support for use of Semantic Feature Analysis
Describes benefits of using this strategy in content area classrooms with students with disabilities
Resource #5.
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED214118.pdf

Provides an overview of the strategy with explicit step-by-step procedure
Describes numerical alternative to +/- system
Provides examples of Semantic Feature Analysis





Additional resource:
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED319001.pdf
http://woodard.latech.edu/~kklopez/EDCI424/Vocabulary%20Handout.pdf
This strategy can be used before instruction as a diagnostic assessment.
During or after the lesson, students can revise their charts to be more consistent with what they have learned.
Strategy #1:
Concept of Definition Map
Description
Internet Resources
Resource #1.
http://woodard.latech.edu/~kklopez/EDCI424/Vocabulary%20Handout.pdf

Summarizes the Frayer Model for use with notecards
Identifies appropriate sequencing for this strategy
Provides example
Resource #2.
ftp://75.75.84.136/shares/Kirby/COPIED%20FILES/megan/PROFESSIONAL%20DOCUMENTS/graduate%20school/EDIS%20523/Readings/FisherBlachowicz2005.pdf

Summarizes Concept of Definition Maps
Provides a case example using this strategy along with appropriate scaffolding
Resource #3.
http://www.public.asu.edu/~diann/Resources/Readings/Vocab%20Instruction--Advice%20to%20NewTeachers.pdf

Summarizes Concept of Definition Maps with purpose and procedure
Provides example
Resource #4.
http://www.nysut.org/~/media/Files/NYSUT/Resources/2009/April/educatorsvoice2_middle_04_science.pdf

Summarizes the Frayer Model
Provides examples of the Frayer Model in a science context
Resource #5.
http://www.nbss.ie/sites/default/files/publications/frayer_model_-_vocbulary_strategy_handout__copy_3.pdf

Summarizes the Frayer Model
Provides numerous examples of the strategy
Contains blank handouts





Additional resource:
http://www.faculty.virginia.edu/raymondjones/pdf/RT-60-1-Jones.pdf
Concept of Definition Maps are a strategy that use shapes and lines to connect words with their definitions, properties, and examples (Miller & Veatch, 2011; Fisher & Blachowicz, 2005).
This strategy can help create a robust conceptual understanding of a word through these numerous connections to examples and properties (Miller & Veatch, 2011).
Similar strategies include the Frayer Method and Vocabulary Note Cards.
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