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Timeline of Chinese Dynasties

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devan s

on 4 April 2013

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Transcript of Timeline of Chinese Dynasties

Chinese Dynasties Timeline ZHOU QIN HAN 1700 - 1122 BCE 1045 - 256 BCE 221 - 210 BCE 206 BCE - 220 CE GOVERNMENT SOCIAL STRUCTURE WRITING RELIGION SHANG By Devan Shanker
27 March 2013
Due: 4 April 2013
7th Period LAOZI AND
DAOISM FEUDALISM AND THE MANDATE OF HEAVEN CONFUCIUS AND
CONFUCIANISM WARRING STATES PERIOD HANFEIZI AND LEGALISM FALL OF THE QIN 210 BCE
RISE OF THE HAN 206 BCE -the Shang army weakened from fighting many wars
-king and nobles spent excessively on furnishings, palaces, and tombs, which weakened the economy
-the last king was corrupt and irresponsible; he wasted his time on activities like hunting
-the frontier Zhou state rose up against the Shang dynasty and caught the dynasty unaware and defeated them The START OF THE SHANG DYNASTY 1700 BCE -ancient China was made up of multiple clans, and was not one country
-rival clans fought with each other for power and land
-sometimes, one clan would gain enough power to start a dynasty
-this is how the Shang dynasty started -kings controlled all of the land
-kings set up smaller kingdoms for his families and nephews to expand power
-when a king died, power would go to a younger brother or a son
-kings were almost in constant war; they kept other clans under control, and they expanded and defended their kingdoms
-the Shang armies were made of foot soldiers, archers, cavalry riding horses and elephants, and fighters in chariots KING NOBLES CRAFTSPEOPLE TRADERS FARMERS SLAVES -owns land and collects taxes
-makes laws and rules people -gave the king military help by fighting in the army or providing weapons, foot soldiers, and chariots
-lived lives of luxury in palaces and spent extra time hunting -the small craftspeople class had bronze workers, potters, jade workers, and stonemasons
-bronze workers made weapons for the army, and ornaments and art for religions ceremonies -traders traded goods, and cowrie shells, a form of money -largest social class
-grew rice, barely, wheat, millet, fruit, vegetables, and nuts
-used simple wooden and stone tools
-farmland owned by kings/nobles -often captured in wars
-spent lives building emperor's projects -centered around ancestor worship
-believed in an afterlife
-honored ancestors with offerings of wine and food, and human sacrifice
-kings used oracle bones to ask for ancestors' advice
-kings had special relationships with dead ancestors -in Chinese writing, characters stand for words, not sounds
-Chinese characters were logographs: pictures that represented words
-helped unify China
-language varied slightly in different places -the Mandate of Heaven was a divine right to rule China, believed to be granted by a god
-to prove their conquest of China, the Zhou claimed they had been given the Mandate of Heaven

-feudalism was a system of relationships that assisted in strengthening the empire
-kings owned all of the land, but they gave some of it to lords, who in return sent soldiers if the king was attacked
-lords gave peasants protection, and in return, peasants gave the lords some of the crops they picked -the system of Feudalism started collapsing as power-hungry lords started challenging the power of the king
-the Warring States Period began in 770 BCE, and ended in 453 BCE
-the small states continuously fought for power, and eventually became about 6 or 7 larger, more powerful states
-scholars were hired by rulers to give the rulers ideas on how to create peace and order, but still increase their power
-so many ideas were offered, they were referred to as the "Hundred Schools of Thought"
-three pivotal philosophies were Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism -Confucius, a Chinese philosopher, who wanted to achieve peace and order in society
-he also wanted to teach great men to work as truthful, fair, government officials

-Confucius taught that there were 5 basic relationships
-in all relationships, people must respect and obey those above them
-in return, those with higher status in relationships will set good examples for others

-under the Han, civil servants were hired based on their skills
-they had to take an exam on the Chinese classics in detail before being hired, which the emperor himself may grade BRONZE METALWORKING -craftspeople made bronze war tools such as arrowheads, spearheads, ax heads, and helmets
-the Shang were some of the first people to discover how to make bronze from copper and tin -Laozi was a Chinese philosopher who gave answers to the problems of proper living and good government
-once an adviser of the Zhou court
-wrote the Dao de Jing when a guard stopped him when he was leaving China, and asked him to write hi thoughts

-Daoism taught that true harmony comes from balancing the 2 opposing forces of nature, yin (shaded) and yang (sunlit)
-people should live with the way of nature, and accept whatever happens and move on
-rulers are the best if they rule the least

-made kings rule less harshly and strictly
-influenced mostly thought, writing, and art -prince of the royal family of the state Han
-wanted to create order and strong government, but Confucianism wasn't the answer

-make strict laws and enforce them with punishments and rewards to create a strong society
-civil servants should be observed, and punished for doing a bad job on any work
-anyone who criticizes the government should be banished
-rulers should have absolute power and military might

-the Qin Dynasty took over China, and respected Hanfeizi's philosophy
-they applied Legalist ideas to build a strong, central government 770 - 453 BCE FALL OF THE ZHOU 256 BCE
RISE OF THE QIN 221 BCE -the Qin Dynasty took control of China at the end of the Warring States Period
-Prince Zheng was born in 259 BCE
-he took the throne of the Qin Dynasty in 246 BCE
-when Prince Zheng controlled all of China, he changed his name to Qin Shihuangdi FALL OF THE SHANG 1122 BCE
RISE OF THE ZHOU 1045 BCE STRENGTHENING THE EMPIRE -Qin used Legalist ideas to rule
-used strict laws, harsh punishments, and a strong central authority
-Qin used his own government system instead of feudalism because the power of lords rivaled that of the king
-he divided his territory into 36 provinces, and each province had 3 appointed government officials
-one official for the army, one for agriculture and law, and one to report back to the emperor SIMPLIFYING CULTURE -created a unified system of laws
-some focused on government officials, while others focused on everyday life
-punishments were paid or physical fines
-standardizing money made trade easier
-only form of money became gold and bronze coins
-measuring cups were made to ensure each coin was the same size
-Qin Shihuangdi had metalworkers make bell-shaped weights out of iron or bronze, in different sizes
-reduced the number of characters in the Chinese written language BUILDING THE GREAT WALL -the Great Wall of China was built to protect the northern border of China
-many people were forced from their homes into exile to work on the Great Wall
-some dangers were the landforms, such as quicksand, the weather, which ranged from frigid to scorching, and attacks from those in the North ENDING OPPOSITION -the emperor did not want people opposing his rule
-Confucian scholars believed in behavior and good example, not harsh laws
-to end opposition, all Confucian books were burned up, and the emperor executed 460 Confucian scholars THE DEATH OF THE EMPEROR -Qin Shihuangdi died in 210 BCE searching for an eternal life potion
-over 700,000 workers helped build his tomb complex, which covered more than 1 square mile
-in his tomb, precious jewels, tools, rare objects, and an entire terra-cotta army which had over 6,000 soldiers -because of the harshness of his rule, a civil war broke out after Qin Shihuangdi died
-many different leaders fought for control
-in 206 BCE, Liu Bang, a peasant leader, defeated other leaders and established the Han Dynasty GOVERNMENT MILITARY SCIENCE -the Han incorporated both Confucianism and Legalism into their rule
-the government system was a bureaucracy
-higher Han officials lived in the capital, but lower Han officials lived all around the empire
-civil servants were hired based on their ability and knowledge instead of by social class
-before being hired, civil servants were required to pass a long, difficult exam about the Chinese classics -the Han military tactics and improved weapons helped them protect and expand their empire
-all men had to serve 2 years in the army
-historians believe the Han army consisted of between 130,000 and 300,000
-the Han used iron to make stronger armor and longer swords
-the Han were very skilled using a crossbow, a weapon similar to a bow -the Han made many scientific advances in the area of astronomy
-they invented the seismograph, which indicated the direction of an earthquake, so the government could send supplies to the area
-the Han learned that lodestone always aligned itself north-south, which helped them make compasses such as the south-pointing spoon
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