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Timeline of Chinese Dynasties

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devan s

on 4 April 2013

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Transcript of Timeline of Chinese Dynasties

Chinese Dynasties Timeline ZHOU QIN HAN 1700 - 1122 BCE 1045 - 256 BCE 221 - 210 BCE 206 BCE - 220 CE GOVERNMENT SOCIAL STRUCTURE WRITING RELIGION SHANG By Devan Shanker
27 March 2013
Due: 4 April 2013
7th Period LAOZI AND
RISE OF THE HAN 206 BCE -the Shang army weakened from fighting many wars
-king and nobles spent excessively on furnishings, palaces, and tombs, which weakened the economy
-the last king was corrupt and irresponsible; he wasted his time on activities like hunting
-the frontier Zhou state rose up against the Shang dynasty and caught the dynasty unaware and defeated them The START OF THE SHANG DYNASTY 1700 BCE -ancient China was made up of multiple clans, and was not one country
-rival clans fought with each other for power and land
-sometimes, one clan would gain enough power to start a dynasty
-this is how the Shang dynasty started -kings controlled all of the land
-kings set up smaller kingdoms for his families and nephews to expand power
-when a king died, power would go to a younger brother or a son
-kings were almost in constant war; they kept other clans under control, and they expanded and defended their kingdoms
-the Shang armies were made of foot soldiers, archers, cavalry riding horses and elephants, and fighters in chariots KING NOBLES CRAFTSPEOPLE TRADERS FARMERS SLAVES -owns land and collects taxes
-makes laws and rules people -gave the king military help by fighting in the army or providing weapons, foot soldiers, and chariots
-lived lives of luxury in palaces and spent extra time hunting -the small craftspeople class had bronze workers, potters, jade workers, and stonemasons
-bronze workers made weapons for the army, and ornaments and art for religions ceremonies -traders traded goods, and cowrie shells, a form of money -largest social class
-grew rice, barely, wheat, millet, fruit, vegetables, and nuts
-used simple wooden and stone tools
-farmland owned by kings/nobles -often captured in wars
-spent lives building emperor's projects -centered around ancestor worship
-believed in an afterlife
-honored ancestors with offerings of wine and food, and human sacrifice
-kings used oracle bones to ask for ancestors' advice
-kings had special relationships with dead ancestors -in Chinese writing, characters stand for words, not sounds
-Chinese characters were logographs: pictures that represented words
-helped unify China
-language varied slightly in different places -the Mandate of Heaven was a divine right to rule China, believed to be granted by a god
-to prove their conquest of China, the Zhou claimed they had been given the Mandate of Heaven

-feudalism was a system of relationships that assisted in strengthening the empire
-kings owned all of the land, but they gave some of it to lords, who in return sent soldiers if the king was attacked
-lords gave peasants protection, and in return, peasants gave the lords some of the crops they picked -the system of Feudalism started collapsing as power-hungry lords started challenging the power of the king
-the Warring States Period began in 770 BCE, and ended in 453 BCE
-the small states continuously fought for power, and eventually became about 6 or 7 larger, more powerful states
-scholars were hired by rulers to give the rulers ideas on how to create peace and order, but still increase their power
-so many ideas were offered, they were referred to as the "Hundred Schools of Thought"
-three pivotal philosophies were Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism -Confucius, a Chinese philosopher, who wanted to achieve peace and order in society
-he also wanted to teach great men to work as truthful, fair, government officials

-Confucius taught that there were 5 basic relationships
-in all relationships, people must respect and obey those above them
-in return, those with higher status in relationships will set good examples for others

-under the Han, civil servants were hired based on their skills
-they had to take an exam on the Chinese classics in detail before being hired, which the emperor himself may grade BRONZE METALWORKING -craftspeople made bronze war tools such as arrowheads, spearheads, ax heads, and helmets
-the Shang were some of the first people to discover how to make bronze from copper and tin -Laozi was a Chinese philosopher who gave answers to the problems of proper living and good government
-once an adviser of the Zhou court
-wrote the Dao de Jing when a guard stopped him when he was leaving China, and asked him to write hi thoughts

-Daoism taught that true harmony comes from balancing the 2 opposing forces of nature, yin (shaded) and yang (sunlit)
-people should live with the way of nature, and accept whatever happens and move on
-rulers are the best if they rule the least

-made kings rule less harshly and strictly
-influenced mostly thought, writing, and art -prince of the royal family of the state Han
-wanted to create order and strong government, but Confucianism wasn't the answer

-make strict laws and enforce them with punishments and rewards to create a strong society
-civil servants should be observed, and punished for doing a bad job on any work
-anyone who criticizes the government should be banished
-rulers should have absolute power and military might

-the Qin Dynasty took over China, and respected Hanfeizi's philosophy
-they applied Legalist ideas to build a strong, central government 770 - 453 BCE FALL OF THE ZHOU 256 BCE
RISE OF THE QIN 221 BCE -the Qin Dynasty took control of China at the end of the Warring States Period
-Prince Zheng was born in 259 BCE
-he took the throne of the Qin Dynasty in 246 BCE
-when Prince Zheng controlled all of China, he changed his name to Qin Shihuangdi FALL OF THE SHANG 1122 BCE
RISE OF THE ZHOU 1045 BCE STRENGTHENING THE EMPIRE -Qin used Legalist ideas to rule
-used strict laws, harsh punishments, and a strong central authority
-Qin used his own government system instead of feudalism because the power of lords rivaled that of the king
-he divided his territory into 36 provinces, and each province had 3 appointed government officials
-one official for the army, one for agriculture and law, and one to report back to the emperor SIMPLIFYING CULTURE -created a unified system of laws
-some focused on government officials, while others focused on everyday life
-punishments were paid or physical fines
-standardizing money made trade easier
-only form of money became gold and bronze coins
-measuring cups were made to ensure each coin was the same size
-Qin Shihuangdi had metalworkers make bell-shaped weights out of iron or bronze, in different sizes
-reduced the number of characters in the Chinese written language BUILDING THE GREAT WALL -the Great Wall of China was built to protect the northern border of China
-many people were forced from their homes into exile to work on the Great Wall
-some dangers were the landforms, such as quicksand, the weather, which ranged from frigid to scorching, and attacks from those in the North ENDING OPPOSITION -the emperor did not want people opposing his rule
-Confucian scholars believed in behavior and good example, not harsh laws
-to end opposition, all Confucian books were burned up, and the emperor executed 460 Confucian scholars THE DEATH OF THE EMPEROR -Qin Shihuangdi died in 210 BCE searching for an eternal life potion
-over 700,000 workers helped build his tomb complex, which covered more than 1 square mile
-in his tomb, precious jewels, tools, rare objects, and an entire terra-cotta army which had over 6,000 soldiers -because of the harshness of his rule, a civil war broke out after Qin Shihuangdi died
-many different leaders fought for control
-in 206 BCE, Liu Bang, a peasant leader, defeated other leaders and established the Han Dynasty GOVERNMENT MILITARY SCIENCE -the Han incorporated both Confucianism and Legalism into their rule
-the government system was a bureaucracy
-higher Han officials lived in the capital, but lower Han officials lived all around the empire
-civil servants were hired based on their ability and knowledge instead of by social class
-before being hired, civil servants were required to pass a long, difficult exam about the Chinese classics -the Han military tactics and improved weapons helped them protect and expand their empire
-all men had to serve 2 years in the army
-historians believe the Han army consisted of between 130,000 and 300,000
-the Han used iron to make stronger armor and longer swords
-the Han were very skilled using a crossbow, a weapon similar to a bow -the Han made many scientific advances in the area of astronomy
-they invented the seismograph, which indicated the direction of an earthquake, so the government could send supplies to the area
-the Han learned that lodestone always aligned itself north-south, which helped them make compasses such as the south-pointing spoon
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