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Kinds of Sculpture
Transcript of Kinds of Sculpture
According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Heilbronn Time line of Art History, Relief sculpture is "sculpture that projects in varies degrees from a two-dimensional background." Relief sculpture is among the oldest forms of sculpted art. The Crafty Art World website breaks down Relief sculpture into three major types, based on how far out from the two dimensional background the sculpture rises.
Sculpture is one of the oldest art forms and has a rich history that stretches back to some of the earliest civilizations. But as with other art forms, the styles of sculpture have changed and diversified into different types that reflect the prevailing trends of the period.
Free Standing Sculpture
Free-standing sculpture, also known as sculpture in-the-round, likely represents the form of sculpture most recognizable to modern people. Free-standing sculpture is any work of sculpture which can be viewed from any angle around the pedestal. This kind of sculpture includes some of the most famous works of sculpture throughout time: the statuary works of the Greek, Roman, Medieval and Classical eras, including Michelangelo’s David. Another work of even more ancient free-standing sculpture is Glycan's Hercules, as seen on the University of Southern California at Los Angeles‘s
Examples of Sculpture
Kinds of Sculpture
Kinetic sculpture is free-standing sculpture that moves, either by mechanical power or under the power of wind or water. Fountains are a form of kinetic sculpture, although in that special case the sculpture is not powered by the water but lives within the shapes and forms of the water as it arcs over and through the air.
Another more modern form of sculpture is known as Assemblage sculpture, which is sculpture pieced together from found or scavenged items that have little or no relationship to one another. " These pieced-together bits of cast off debris are arranged in an aesthetically pleasing shape to the artist and then presented to its audiences to provoke thought and reaction.
Additive sculpture is the process of creating sculpture by adding material to create the work. Although artists have worked in every medium from butter to cement, the most common material is typically wax or clay which is modeled by the artist to create the form desired. It was the additive modeling process that allowed the Greek artists of the Golden era of the 5th century B.C.
Example of Additive Process:ASSEMBLAGE
Two Major Sculpture Process
Subtractive sculpture is the oldest form of sculpture and involves removing material, as in wood carving or stone sculpture, to create a finished work. Subtractive sculpture is by far the most technically difficult and due to the nature of the medium is the most restrictive in expression. Eventually stone artists began to compose their sculpture first in clay and then used a variety of mechanical devices to transfer the three dimensional coordinates of the clay surface to a block of stone. In this way, stone subtractive sculptures of the Roman era began to take on a new mobility and grace. Another reason the Roman Marbles were more expressive than their earlier Greek counterparts is that many were copies of Greek bronzes; bronzes which were created without the limitations of stone.
Example of a Subtractive Process:CARVING