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Helen Hooper

on 24 February 2017

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Transcript of BA1001

600 CE
A Brief story of books/libraries & universities
T’ang Dynasty - the first printing is done in China using ink on carved wooden blocks begins to make multiple transfers of an image to paper.
Laborious and inflexible
1300-1400s Europe
Europeans first make paper. However, the Chinese and Egyptians had started making paper centuries before.
Paper was not generally available in Europe until the latter part of the 13th century, documents for the most part being inscribed on parchment or vellum
Many opposed change - apathy and ignorance
Since few could read the need for books was limited
It required the great surge of the Renaissance to bring change
Cambridge & Oxford universities had small collections of a few hundred books
Movable Metal Type
Johann Gutenberg often called the father of printing
1456 Gutenberg Bible printed
1469 Peter Schoeffer's list of publications (1st publisher's catalogue in history)
Digital Libraries
Mid-late 80s - development of the Internet and World Wide Web

Lead to the information explosion, search engines, online databases, open access repositories, eBooks, digital rights management and much, much more...

Libraries have long facilitated the “finding” of information, ... Now they are facilitating the creating of information.” (Murphy, 2014)

From gatekeepers to gate openers. Creating meaningful user experiences (Bell, 2009)
The library of the future will be

flexible, varied & gorgeous
Virtual & physical maker spaces
Creative spaces
Collaborative spaces
Learning spaces
3D printing
Papyrus to Paper
Papyrus was the paper of Mediterranean world from 3500 BCE to time of Christ
Vellum dominant by 500 CE
Paper invented by Chinese in 100 CE, dominant by 600 CE
Illuminated manuscript production mainly in monasteries after 500 CE (heyday 7th - 9th Century). Team of scribes, proof readers, rubricators, illuminators and binders.

3500 BCE
"Gutenberg's accomplishments ranks with the major innovations of history. Within a few decades after his Bible was printed, presses began to produce the grammars and dictionaries that were to be the basic tools for increasing literacy. Vespasiano, with fifty-five writers working for him, needed almost two years to finish two hundred books. Froben was able to print 24,000 copies of Erasmus' Colloquies in a few months" (Chappell, 1970, p.60).
Stop Cylinder Press
Faster printing methods = more books
800 sheets per hour
1814 London Times
Newspapers, broadsheets, magazines, journals
Emergence of public libraries 1700-1800s
Library of Alexandria
Founded 300 BCE
Intellectual beacon
About 400,000 volumes
Repository of the Hellenic world
Destroyed 48 BCE
"By 1700 the universities of Europe had become almost entirely irrelevant to the enhancement of learning and the diffusion of knowledge" (Learner,2001, p.124).
University libraries had limited scope with little advancement since the age of the manuscript
Bring on the Enlightenment
Rethinking role of universities and education meant new universities & new libraries
University of Goettingen opened in 1737 as a research & teaching institute
"University libraries began to transition from treasure-house to intellectual heart of the university" (Lerner, 2001, p.125).
State library of Victoria Reading Room. The building was first opened in 1856 with a collection of 3,800 books, and the famous domed reading room was opened in 1913.
...hyper-mobile positionally fluid, and no longer constrained by the chains of traditional information desk spaces - while also retaining the best features of the old world of libraries
...refurbished (fingers crossed), a collaboration space, a place where technology meets heart

...a multi-location physical space for academic collaboration, while providing online access to resources and information for a community beyond our immediate regional zone

...a space (virtual and physical) for people to gather and connect. Where inspiration, creativity, learning and fun intersect

Quotes from Librarians - VALA, 2014
Stuttgart, Germany
San Antonio's BiblioTech
Clay tablets, to papyrus (and vellum) scrolls, to paper books and printing presses, and finally to pixels and digital eBooks
Book of Kells
One of my favorite Ted Talks
Wrap Up

The Beginnings, 3500 BCE...?
The Sumerians probably invented the first writing system -
Writing was used as a reliable information storage and retrieval system
Important clay tablet texts were kept in storerooms
Books, Institutions and the Truth
Knowledge is power

History is written by the winners
Libraries as repositories of the truth...?
- libraries are funded by governments
- government censorship
- digitisation is providing greater access to information than ever before
- digitisation is providing opportunities to re-examine the past, opening it up to fresh scrutiny
Never judge a book by its cover
- question accepted truths
Full transcript