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Transcript of Argumentation
Caroline Violante Deductive Reasoning, Inductive Reasoning, and Toulmin Logic proceeds from a general premise or assumption to a specific conclusion Deductive Reasoning The basic form of deductive reasoning
Consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. Syllogism The major premise is usually self-evident; it needs no proof. The minor premise, however, most always must be supported by evidence. There are three steps to take when using inductive reasoning... First you choose a question to be answered, or a hypothesis -- a tentative answer to the question. Next, you gather evidence to help you answer the question. You then move from evidence to a conclusion by making an inference. Examples of syllogism:
All people with the name Krista are smart.
All people with the name Kevin are smart.
All people with the name Krista are named Kevin.
All AP students are smart.
Caroline and Devin are AP students.
Caroline and Devin are smart. The syllogism must be distributed -- it covers all the items in the class it denotes. Inductive Reasoning The conclusion, though, does not necessarily have to be true. Some can be false, such as: People who have just run a marathon sweat profusely.
You are sweating profusely.
Therefore, you have just run a marathon. In order to be sound, a syllogism must be logical and true. Advantage?
By using deductive argument, with the use of logic in the major and minor premise, the reader is forced to accept the conclusion. The moves from specific examples or facts to a general conclusion Example: How did Caroline get sick?
Caroline is in Spanish club.
Krista is in the Spanish Club too.
Krista had a cold last week.
Caroline and Krista both attended the Spanish Club meeting on Tuesday.
Caroline caught a cold from Krista. Although the conclusion is believable, it is not necessarily true. In order to stay away from jumping to a conclusion, or skipping from the hypothesis to the conclusion, be sure to consider several possible conclusions. Don't forget to make an inductive leap using facts! An effort to describe how argumentative strategies lead to a particular response from the reader This type of argument has three parts, the claim, the grounds, and the warrant... The main point of the essay
Usually stated in the thesis
May be implied Material used to support the claim
Can be evidence or appeals to emotions/values of the audience Inference that connects the claims to the grounds
Can be a belief that is taken for granted or an assumption that underlies the argument Example: Devin is really lame.
Devin is on the cross country team.
People who run cross country are really lame. You can even use inductive and deductive reasoning with toulmin logic! Advantage?
Using inductive reasoning strengthens your argument. Plus, it does not need a distinct form like deductive reasoning. Advantage?
It uses both inductive and deductive reasoning to form its warrant or conclusion. Having trouble remembering these? Here's some help... DEductive reasoning DEcreases. Major Premise Minor Premise Conclusion INductive reasoning INcreases. Hypothesis Evidence Conclusion Claim Grounds Warrant Toulmin Logic: Works Cited: