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Social Cognitive Theory Chapter 9
Transcript of Social Cognitive Theory Chapter 9
Behahioral Patterns includes self-observation(personal journals); self-evaluation; making changes in behavior to overcome or reduce perceptions of low self-efficacy, anxiety and ineffective learning strategies; and creating productive study environments. Environmental Factors refer to an individual's social and physical environment. Self-Control, Self-Regulation, and Self-Efficacy. Self-control the ability to control one's actions in the absence of external reinforcement or punishment. Self-regulation consistently using self-control skills in new situations. Self-Efficacy how capable one feels to handle particular kinds of tasks The Role of Self-Efficacy in Self-Regulation Self-Efficacy beliefs influence use of self-regulating skills. Avoiding challeging tasks Optimistic or pessimistic thoughts Performance Accomplishments Verbal Persuasion Emotional Arousal Vicarious Experience Factors that Affect Self-Efficacy Behaviors Affected by Self-Efficacy Selection Processes College major, courses, career, Sports
Social activities Cognitive Processes Use of high-level thought processes to solve complex problems; imagining a successful performance Motivational Processes Level of effort and degree of persistence, particularly in the face of problems, setbacks and frustrations Affective Processes Level of anxiety, depression,elation experienced in taxing situations; ablitiy to cope with risky tasks. Task Analysis Forethought Phase Setting goals
Formulating strategies Phases and Categories of the Self- Regulation Cycle Performance Phase Self-motivational beliefs Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning
consequences of goals achievement
intrinsic interest in task
learning-oriented vs. performance oriented goals. Self-control
recording one's behavior
trying out different forms of behavior Self-reflective Phase Self-judgment
evaluting one's behavior
attributing outcomes to effort, ability, task difficulty, luck Self-reaction
drawing inferences about need to improve self-regulation skills Helping Students Become Self-Regulated Learners What is Self-Regulated Learners? Thoughts, Feelings, and actions purposely generated and controlled to maximize a learning outcome. Learning Strategy plan to achieve a long-term goal Learning Tactic specific technique that helps achieve immediate objective Memory-Directed Tactics Techniques that help produce accurate storage and retrieval of information Rote Rehearsal Cumulative Rehearsal Mnemonic Devices Rhyme Acronym Acrostic Method of Loci Keyword not a very effective memory tactic meaningfully organize information, provide retrieval cues word made from first letters of items to be learned
HOMES(the names of the Great Lakes-Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior) sentence made up of words derived from first letters of items to be learned visually link pronunciation of foreign word to English translation visualize items to be learned stored in specific locations Comprehension-Directed Tactics Questioning Self-questioning What is new example of...?
What is the meaning of...? Peer-questioning Note taking Concept Mapping taking notes and reviewing notes aid retention and comprehension. This is a technique that helps students identify, visually organize and represent the relationships among a set of ideas. The Components of a Learning Strategy Metacognition Analysis Planning Implementation of the Plan Monitoring of Progress Modification Who, What, Why, When, Where and How Hypothesizing A Social Cognitive Model of Self-Regulated Skill Learning Observation Emulation Self-Control Self-regulation Attend to actions and verbalizations of the model and discriminate relevant from irrelevant behaviors Exhibit the general form of the modeled behavior Learn to exhibit the modeled behavior automatically through self-directed practice Learn to adapt the behavior to changes in internal and external conditions(such as reactions of others) Observing a peer model improves students' self-efficacy for math problem solving and math problem-solving ability. Observing a peer model improves the quality of students' writing more than simply practicing writing. Effects of Instruction on Self-Regulated Learning Skills Reciprocal Teaching TWA Benchmark School students learn comprehension skills by demonstrating them to peers Think before reading, while reading and after reading is a private school that serves students who have experienced several years of academic failure. Students ages range from 6- 12years. Reciprocal Questioning the teacher and students silently read a passage
the teacher closes his or her book
the student asks the teacher questions, which they answer
the students close their books
the teacher asks the students questions, which the students answer computer programs that include models can improve students' problem-solving skills computer programs that let students control access to information work best with those who have some self-regulatory skills Questions What is Self-Efficacy
How capable or prepared we believe we are to handle certain tasks. Why is Rote rehearsal not a very effective memory tactic It does not produce distinct encoding or good retrieval cues. Why are Mnemonic Devices effective They enhance encodability and retrievability of information. They provide a context, meaningfulness of material to be learned enhanced through associations with more familiar meaningful information. Also, they provide distinctive retrieval cues and force the learner to be an active participant in the learning process. The information that one wnts to recall are embedded in a rhyme that may range from one to several lines.
Thirty days hath September, April, June and November. involves rehearsing a small set of items for several repetitions, dropping the item at the top of the list and adding a new one, giving the set several repetitions, dropping the item at the head of the set and adding a new one, rehearsing the set and so on.