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Geology Unit 2: composition and interactions of the Earth

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Sarah Frain

on 12 May 2016

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Transcript of Geology Unit 2: composition and interactions of the Earth

Geology Unit 2: Composition and interactions of the Earth
Layers of the Earth
Tectonic Plates
http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html
Crust
Thin layer of cool rock
0-50 kilometers (0-31 miles)
Two Types:
Oceanic
all crust on floor of ocean
Continental

all continents and major islands
Mantle
semi molten thickest layer
2,900 kilometers (1,802 miles) thick
where
convection
occurs
Lithosphere
: Crust and thin outermost shell of the upper mantle
Asthenosphere
: layer of hot, softer rock in upper mantel
Outer

Core
Layer of
liquid metal
Made mostly of
iron and nickel
2,300 km (1,400 mi)
composed of
iron and nickel
Super hot!
7,200 and 9,000 degrees
Fahrenheit
Inner Core
mostly
solid iron
1,200 kilometers (750 miles) thick
9,000 and 13,000
degrees Fahrenheit)
extreme
pressure!!!
Lithosphere broken into
slabs of rock called plates
Fit together like a
jigsaw puzzle
Most plates contain both
Continental and oceanic crust
What are Tectonic Plates?
Convection
Convection is the
transfer of heat by the movement of the heated material.
1. Create an if then because hypothesis for what you think will happen to the food color in the image
2. Write and draw your observations for what happens during the video
Theory of Continental Drift
Continents were once joined
, and
over time had drifted
apart
Alfred Wegener
(20th century) proposed the
Continental Drift Theory
Thought to be crazy at the time
Alfred Wegner
Supercontinents
Most famous supercontinent was Pangaea that existed 300 million years ago
On your paper:
1. What is convection?
2. How does the beaker simulate earth?
Turn into the back when done!
Plates Move
When
two plates come together
and crust either
folded or destroyed
Subduction zone:
o
ne plate under another
Three Types:
Two continent
: form mountains
Two ocean:
forms deep ocean trenches and island arcs
One continent and one ocean
: volcanos and deep ocean trenches
Convergent Boundaries
Plate Boundries
http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/plate.html
Border
between two tectonic plates is called a boundary
All the tectonic plates are constantly
moving
Convection
causes the movement
Occurs when two tectonic plates
move away from each other
Seafloor and continents spreading causes
rift valleys
and
mid ocean ridges
form

Divergent Boundaries
Transform Plate Boundaries
Two plates
sliding past each other
Crust not formed or destroyed
Occur mostly at mid ocean ridges
Cause
earthquakes

Activity Directions
Step 1: Cut out map
Step 2: Color key and map
Step 3: Piece together Pangea
Step 4: Answer the questions
Step 5: Start going through the evidence and support side
Evidence
: actual scientific data collected
Support
: ideas that back up a theory
Earth in 100 million years!
Volcanoes
What is a volcano?
A(n) volcano is a
vent in Earth’s crust through which molten rock flows
Magma
: liquid rock material
below
Earth’s surface
Lava
: magma erupts
above or onto
Earth’s surface
How volcanos occur
Convergent boundaries:
magma rises through cracks in the crust during subduction
Divergent boundaries:
magma rises in cracks between the two plates
Hot Spots:
not associated with plate boundaries
Composite Volcano
large, steep-sided volcanoes
result from explosive eruptions of andesitic and rhyolitic lava
convergent plate boundaries
Cinder cone
small, steep-sided volcanoes that erupt gas-rich, basaltic lavas
Shield Volcano
large, gentle-sloped volcanoes that result from quiet eruptions
of fluid lavas along divergent plate boundaries and oceanic hot spots.
Earthquakes
Earthquakes
Earthquakes are the
vibrations in the ground
that result from movement along
breaks in Earth’s lithosphere
Forces that move tectonic plates also
push and pull
rocks along breaks
http://ds.iris.edu/seismon/
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/
www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcH2GP-59ro
Where do earthquakes occur?
Fault
:
any break
in Earth’s lithosphere, where a block of rock moves toward, away from, or past another block
Active plate boundaries:
can be on
divergent, convergent, transform,
which are generally in the middle of oceans or along the edges of continents
Earthquake Waves
Earthquakes Waves
Seismic waves:
energy released when rocks move along a fault
Focus
: location inside the earth where rocks first move
Epicenter
: location on Earth’s surface directly above focus
Primary waves (P-waves)
cause particles in the ground to move in a
push-pull
motion
Primary Waves
Secondary Waves
Secondary waves (S-waves)
move rock particles
side to side and
up and down
at right angles to the direction that the wave travels
Surface Waves
Surface waves move the ground up and down and side to side, like an
ocean wave.
Most
Damaging
Determining Earthquake Magnitude
Seismograph
Seismograph measures earthquake waves
Advances in seismograph technology have increased our understanding of both earthquakes
Moment Magnitude

The moment magnitude scale measures the
amount of energy released
by an earthquake
Preferred because it works over a
wider range
of earthquake sizes
Modified Mercalli

The Modified Mercalli scale measures earthquake
intensity and its effects

The Richter magnitude scale uses the
amount of motion
at a given distance from an earthquake to determine the
magnitude
of the earthquake.

Richter Scale
Mapping Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Epicenter
Focus
Fault
Full transcript