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Storm Clouds Over the Nation

8th grade US History
by

Andrew Lewis

on 18 December 2015

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Transcript of Storm Clouds Over the Nation

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Required Northern states to return runaways
Forced the Underground Railroad to extend further North into Canada
Broke tools so they couldn’t work
Black responses to plantation conditions
Working arrangements
Gang system
Large groups of slaves
Worked for set amount of time
Included a variety of jobs
Task system
Slaves given specific tasks
Completion of tasks allowed slaves some free time
America – 1850
Section I
Differences between the north and the South
Chapter 14
Storm Clouds over The Nation
The South clearly worried about the election of 1860
Fire-eaters (Southern extremists) threaten secession if the Republicans win
Almost every Republican stance opposed the interests of the South
The Election of 1860
Section IV
The Election of 1860 and Secession
Section III
The Slavery Issue Intensifies
Slaves obviously opposed the practice
Clear through the number of runaways
Revealed their condition through “spirituals”
“Nobody Knows the Trouble I Seen”
“We Are Climbing Jacob’s Ladder”
North could not compete with Southern work force
Had to use tariffs to compensate
Some saw it as a necessary evil, others a “positive good”
Some cited the Constitution for support
Believed it gave states the right to practice it
Most Northerners retained racist attitudes towards blacks
Few Northern states allowed blacks to vote or hold certain occupations
Separate communities and churches
Some disallowed blacks to settle within their borders
Illinois and Indiana
Most Northerners not concerned about slavery
Abolished in the 1700’s
More concerned with economic expansion and Southern influence in Congress
Abolitionists opposed it from a moral perspective
Supported emancipation (paying slave owners to free slaves)
Opposing Views of Slavery
Harriet Tubman
Escaped slavery in 1849
Returned to the South nearly 20 times to free other slaves
Nicknamed “Moses” by freed slaves
Rebellion
Rarely occurred, still feared by slave owners
Nat Turner Rebellion and Denmark Vesey Rebellion
Both failed and were hanged
Fear of hangings kept revolts at bay
Slaves viewed as an economic investment
Healthy slaves do better work and increase profits
Typical diet was one of a poor Southerner
Some were viewed as family members
Typically house slaves
Still held no basic rights
Sold at least once in a lifetime
Dreaded being sent further South to sugar plantations
Life on a Southern Plantation
Captured by coastal African tribes and sold to European slave traders
Middle Passage – most dangerous and brutal part of the trip
Slaves were
Chained at the wrists and ankles
Poorly fed
Disease ridden
Estimated 1 in 8 died on the voyage
1808 – US the last major nation to ban foreign slave trade
How Slaves were acquired
Why was the issue of slavery delayed?
Different form of slavery from any other civilization
Nicknamed the “peculiar institution”
Involved only those of African descent
Became a permanent condition for most
Result of buying stolen Africans and selling them
Section II
Slavery in Antebellum America
1850’s – Time of unusual growth and prosperity, known as the antebellum (before the war)
Differences between the North and the South led to a divisive conflict
Compromises didn’t work, only delayed the issue
Both North and South talked of freedom, equality, individualism, and growth
Held different opinions about them
Rest of the Whigs and border state politicians select John Bell from Tennessee
Ran under the Constitutional Union Party
For staying with the Union and preserving slavery
With a split Democratic Party, the Republicans had a solid chance of winning
Choose Abraham Lincoln as their candidate
Former Whig who supported Henry Clay’s views
Did not want to end slavery where it already existed
John Brown
– an abolitionist who advocated violence to free slaves
Involved in the murder of several proslavery supporters in Kansas
Moves to Virginia, attempts to seize the federal armory at Harper’s Ferry
Captured by Federal Colonel
Robert E. Lee
Brown convicted of murder and hanged
Labeled an extremist by slave holders, a martyr for abolitionists
John Brown’s Attacks on Slavery
Formed from anti-slavery groups of the Whigs, Democrats, and other political parties
All disagreed with slavery, but were divided on other issues
The Republican Party
Popular sovereignty allowed in those territories
Proslavery and antislavery groups flood into the territories and conflict with each other
“Bleeding Kansas”
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Portrayed slavery from a slave’s perspective
One of the most influential novels of all time
Elicited extreme reactions to slavery
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Neither the Missouri Compromise nor the Compromise of 1850 solved the question of slavery
The issue of slavery was brought to a boil with the event of several incidences
The Problem
Underground Railroad
Offered blacks who could reach the border states a chance of escaping and gaining freedom in the North
Made up of a network of people who aided runaway slaves
“Conductors” hid slaves and gave them instructions on where to go next
Quality of living depended on the master, the amount of owned property, and his management system
Some unquestionably cruel, others very fair
Regardless, most slaves desired freedom
Slave Life in the South
Why did slavery not die out?
Demand for cotton from the North and Europe
1st census 1790 – 750,000 slaves in the US
1860 – 3.5 million+
South
saw the South as unjust
North
The Democrat’s Strategy
Horace Greeley
Published the New York Tribune
Opposed slavery and the Fugitive Slave Act
Center of plantation life:
Work:
Varied by region and season; involved clearing land, planting seeds, cultivating, harvesting, cutting wood, and digging ditches
Other jobs: cooking, caring for the master’s children, caring for animals, and general repair
focused on the freedom from slavery
believed the Southern culture did not value equality
believed slavery kept slaves from choosing their own course of life
valued the growth of industry
saw the North as greedy
focused on keeping states free from federal control
supported the equality of states
argued the North was preventing Southern whites from living an individualistic lifestyle
valued the growth of agriculture
To preserve the Constitution and ensure Southern support
3/5ths Compromise
Guaranteed slave trade until 1808
Center of plantation life:
Master:
Owned the property and the crops, responsible for hiring work/buying slaves
Center of plantation life:
Overseer:
Usually hired white man; distributed work amongst the slaves; sometimes abusive, physically and verbally
Several ways they responded to ill treatment
Report to the “sick house”
Willfully “misunderstand” instructions
Work more slowly than they were capable
Thousands ran away for the North
Constant problem for masters, offered rewards for slaves’ return
Frederick Douglass
Leading black abolitionist
Runaway slave who escaped to England
Wrote an autobiography
“The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass”
Used money from lectures to help free other slaves
Sympathizers bought his freedom
Published abolitionist newspaper
The North Star
Northern Responses to Slavery
William Lloyd Garrison
Published the Liberator
Advocated emancipation without compensation
Southern Responses to Abolitionism
Defended it all the more
Some used it to defend states rights
Others as an economic support
Choose a moderate candidate who appealed to the North and South
Select Stephen Douglas
Fire-eaters considered him as their enemy
Select John C. Breckinridge
The Results
As the election neared, Southern states prepared to secede pending a Republican victory
Current president, James Buchanan, does nothing to discourage it
Lincoln earned the most popular votes and electoral
Democratic candidates combined would have beaten Lincoln
1860 - South Carolina is the first state to secede from the Union, other southern states follow
The Sumner-Brooks Episode
Tensions between North and South build in Congress as well
Charles Sumner – Senator from Mass.
Delivers an angry speech against Kansas violence and verbally attacks SC Senator Andrew Butler
Butler not present
A few days later SC Rep. Preston Brooks attended the Senate’s session
Attacked Sumner with his cane
Northerners: Southerners were violent brutes
Southerners: Praised Brooks’ actions
The Dred Scott Decision
Supreme Court involving slave Dred Scott and his owning family
Originally lived in Missouri (a slave state)
Traveled to and lived in Illinois and Wisconsin with his master, eventually returned to Missouri
Scott sued his owner’s family for his freedom after his master’s death
Believed living on free soil made him a free man
Court cited the 5th Amendment
South rejoiced over Supreme Court’s support of slavery
Court’s decision wrecked any chance of compromise
Question of slavery now rested in the hands of voters in territories
Leaders in Congress and across the nation lacked the strength, experience, wisdom, and patience to make a compromise
Ex: Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, Stephen Davis, James Buchanan
Eventually made its way to the Supreme Court
Court ruled against Scott
Ruled:
Scott was a slave, not a citizen
He did not have the same rights as a citizen
Was not free just by living in a free state
The Confederacy
February 1, 1861 – the Confederate States of America are formed
Jefferson Davis elected as their president
Section V
Fort Sumter and
War
Lincoln rejected this notion as unconstitutional, believed the Union was permanent
Lincoln called for reconciliation between the North and South
Southern states justify secession by saying that states voluntarily joined to form the United States and could therefore voluntarily separate
The Spark
Two federal forts in the South (Fort Pickens in FL and Fort Sumter in SC)
Fort Sumter remained under federal control, in need of provisions
Lincoln sends a fleet of supply ships to resupply the fort
Jefferson Davis disallows any attempt for the fort to be resupplied
Rebel cannons open fire on supply ships and the fort
After forty hours of bombardment, Fort Sumter surrenders
The Call for Troops
After the firing on Fort Sumter, Arkansas, Tennessee, Virginia, and North Carolina join the Confederacy
Slave states Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware remain loyal
Neither side understood how long the war would take, some estimated three months or one decisive battle
Northern Advantages
Finances
Held the overall advantage
Large majority of the population
Industry
Established government
Railroads
Farms
Southern Hope
Also believed they would receive foreign help
Southern states merely had to hold their ground and defend their territory.
Southern troops were much better troops and had better generals
Full transcript