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Transcript of Deaf Culture
How do people become Deaf?
Born with it (congenitally deaf)- genetically transmitted, hereditary, inherited deafness
Became deaf at childhood due to illnesses or medication (adventitiously deaf).
occurring during the first 3 years of life (pre-lingual)
occurring after the age of 3 (post-lingual)
Deafness can be caused by accidents, bomb blast, injuries, extreme chills, high fever, viral infections, etc
Gradual hearing loss can result from repeated doses of very deep or high noises
Otosclerosis- hardening of the bones of the middle ear- is common among older people
Do's and Dont's:
Getting around in the Deaf Community
Tap gently on the shoulder to get attention
Switch lights on and off to get attention
Wait for turn to start signing
Keep the face clear of any obstruction (hair, scarf, sunglasses etc)
Maintain eye contact
ASL is a simple, easy-to-learn language
All Deaf People really wish they could hear
It is best for Deaf people to associate with hearing people
Pointing one's finger at other people is impolite
All intelligent Deaf people can lipread
Deaf people can't speak normally because there is something wrong with their vocal cords
Sign Language is universal
ASL has no grammar or rules of order
Deaf people are emotional
1. Ancient Times
90% of all Deaf people are born into hearing families
Public Law 94-142 is known as the "Mainstream Law"
The terms "hearing defect" and "hearing impaired" are seen as stigmatizing/negative.
CODA- Child of Deaf Adults
The ASL parameters were created by William Stokoe
Big d "Deaf" vs little d "deaf"
American Sign Language is derived from French Sign Language
The contribution to modern day sports which is attributed to Deaf sport teams - The football huddle, so no one on the opposite team can read their signs and know their players
Name Signs - can only be given to a person by a Deaf person. A hearing person cannot give it to a Deaf Person. A person keeps this for life.
2 Worlds- Deaf World and a Hearing World
Residential Schools vs. Mainstream Schools
2 Residential Schools in California - Riverside and Fremont
Deaf history focuses, in large part, on centuries of struggling over ways to overcome a heritage of discrimination by the hearing world and to provide better opportunities for the Deaf Community at large.
Do not touch elsewhere on the body to get attention
Do not kick or throw things to get attention
Do not look away while in a conversation
Do not sign with a handful of objects
Do not eat or chew things while signing
DO not stand in a dark spot
DO not say death, for deaf
Deafness started from the beginning of mankind (as researched by scientists)
During this time it was survival of the fittest
Gordon Hewes, Ph.D: "signs were probably the first language and helped humans to start voice language"
2. Biblical TImes
Based on the earliest known written records, the attitude towards Deaf people were negative and partially positive
The Egyptians treated the Deaf and Blind with respect
The first mention of Deaf people is noted in the Torah
3. MIddle ages
Deaf adults were often ridiculed and served as court jesters
Others were committed to an asylum because of their lack of speech
Deaf people encountered many experiments to cure deafness (blowing loud trumpets into the ears, pouring liquids such as oil, vinegar, juices, fat, blood, etc)
4. THe renaissance
The renaissance was a time of rebirth. This included the rebirth of the way Deaf people were viewed. Now they were viewed as people with abilities
Deaf Education expanded in Europe (Spain, France, England, Scotland, Germany)
6. Origins of deaf learning in America
In the early 1800's Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, a haring minister and a graduate of Yale University met and became friends with a young Deaf girl, Alice. The girl's father Dr. Mason Cogswell, encouraged Gallaudet to become involved with the establishment of a school for the Deaf.
In 1815, Gallaudet headed to Europe in search for methods for teaching the Deaf. He approached a number of program directors, but none of them were willing to share their techniques with Gallaudet.
Fortunately, while in England Gallaudet met up with the director of a Paris school for the Deaf, a man by the name of Sicard. Sicard was there with two of his Deaf pupils, Jean Massieu and Laurent Clerc who were also teachers of the school in Paris. They were in England giving demonstrations on how to teach the Deaf by using sign language.
Gallaudet persuaded Clerc to return with him to the states, and in 1817 the first American school for the Deaf was established in the city of Hartford, Connecticut.
If you could create a Deaf Utopia, what would it be like?
Everyone would communicate in Sign Language, hearing and Deaf.
Most children born were Deaf
5. Martha's vineyard
7. The golden ages (1817-1880)
Many schools for the Deaf began to open around the country and ASL and Deaf Culture began to flourish
8. The dark ages (1880-1960)
In the decades following the Civil War, sign language was eliminated in the classroom and oral methods (speech and lip reading) were used
9. The "coming out" ages (1960-1980)
TTY was invented, RID was founded, total Communication gained some momentum
10. The "speaking" out ages (1980-2000)
Cochlear Implants approved for human use
Marlene Matlin won Oscars
Deaf President Now Movement
Deaf Miss America - Heather Whitestone
11. The age of technology (2000-present)
Labels related to hearing