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Pedagogical schema for teaching thinking
Transcript of Pedagogical schema for teaching thinking
things done with or to knowledge
identified as educational outcomes
Values of inquiry
provide feedback on cognitive skills
at the core of professional practice
have broad application across disciplines
come from mastery of the values
are characteristic of effective thinkers
create knowledge producers
organises work programs
structured in text books
wrongly associated with '
facts and propositions
use PEEL for paragraph structure
the Romans weren't all bad
Socrates taught Plato
frogs lay eggs
Affective dispositions / habits of mind
Inquiry is the process through which the cognitive skills are developed and in which feedback is provided
metacognition through discussion and feedback using the language of cognitive skills
evaluation through discussing the cognitive skills using the language of the values of inquiry
principles of action
shift the focus from
knowledge to inquiry
to allow opportunities to develop the cognitive skills
think and plan in the
language of student cognition
to facilitate metacognition and provide a language of feedback
when thinking can be shared
to allow the norms of critical thinking to be established
Caught, not taught:
We often ask questions that require cognitive skills, but not questions about cognitive skills.
It's not inquiry if...
Students know what result they are supposed to achieve
The question and steps are provided for them
The teacher is working harder than the student
A human being should be able to change a diaper, plan an invasion, butcher a hog, conn a ship, design a building, write a sonnet, balance accounts, build a wall, set a bone, comfort the dying, take orders, give orders, cooperate, act alone, solve equations, analyze a new problem, pitch manure, program a computer, cook a tasty meal, fight efficiently, die gallantly. Specialization is for insects.
-Robert A. Heinlein
A bat and ball cost $1.10 together. The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball. How much does each cost?
Bentham’s Chrestomathia school, developed for the growing middle classes and designed to address the need for faster and more immediately useful educational outcomes, is paradigmatic of the view that education is for utility, and a largely scientific utility at that (Bentham, 1816). Both critics and supporters of Bentham acknowledged that schools were to be modelled on factory processes, and this was something of a selling point for many; but not for all. Elissa Itzkin (1978) notes correspondence from a school of the time expressing concerns that the roles of students and masters are too rigorously defined within this model.
"Indeed, the duties of each must be made perfectly mechanical. There must be no doubt or hesitation on the part of the master or pupil; for doubt would produce delay and dispute, and consequently throw the whole machine into disorder. Hence there can be no appeal to the reasoning powers; for reasoning, never can be reduced to mechanism . . . every boy must conform to the average motion of the School. "