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Transcript of Socialization Processes
Theories of Motivation What is socialization? How does it occur?
How does socialization impact sport participation?
Who are the significant socializers in physical activity across the lifespan?
Eccles’ Expectancy-Value model and social influences
Gender, race, and other differences on socialization A continuous process whereby individuals learn skills, behaviors, attitudes, and values that cause or enable them to function in their group or culture.
Socialization enables us to function in a variety of social roles and learn social norms.
Social roles in the physical domain?
Coach, fitness instructor
1. How do individuals initially become interested and involved in sport? (into)
2. What do participants learn or gain from sport? (through)
3. Why do individuals discontinue their participation? (out of) Socialization occurs largely through the actions of socializing agents
Other significant adults (teachers, relatives) Many theories of motivation fail to include the direct & indirect roles of socializers
In sport, parents influence:
attitudes and values toward sport
We know some about parents & coaches, but less about other socializers:
e.g., influence of siblings and other primary care-givers
Children given “sex-typed” toys
Children develop a preference for these toys
Play styles develop based on the toys they have
Styles persist into childhood Early socialization and play
Does play ‘just happen’?
Have patterns of play changed over time?
What about toys?
Who decides what kids play with?
Are toy choices “natural”?
What are the long-term consequences?
e.g., “throwing like a girl” How do we learn gender roles?
Cultural values and traditions transmitted from one generation to the next
End result = acquisition of “agreed upon systems of standards and values” (pp. 4)
Conformity must occur - process is interactive, but societal expectations & beliefs shape behavior
No better example than how we learn to be “boys” and “girls” Found gender role stereotypical differences in both children’s and adolescents’ valuing of sport, social activities, math, and english
These differences are independent of actual competence
Parents contributed to these differences through:
Differential expectations of sons and daughters
Value placed on the activities Expectancy Value Theory (Eccles et al., 1983) – emerging theory in study of sport participation
Explains WHY gender differences exist in achievement areas
Gender role stereotypes
Role of parents
Could use this theory to examine race, ethnicity, or other differences Social influence generally studied in terms of social support
Can examine who is providing the support or how the support is being provided
Who is important for adults?
Spouse, family, friends, experts
How can be negative (e.g., criticizing behavior) or positive (e.g., informational, esteem support)
Higher levels of SS associated with higher PA participation and adherence rates Examined expectancies for success, task value, identity and effort in high school basketball players
NO gender differences found but did find differences by race:
African American athletes higher expectancies, value, and identity, but lower perceived effort (as measured by coach)
Why might this be? Boys and girls “play” (Lever, 1976, 1978)
outdoor games indoor games
larger groups solitary or small groups
high structure less structure
many rules few rules
boys “gamed” girls “played”
multiple roles central-person games Task
for success Affective
memories Goals and
identity Interpretation of
experience Perceptions of
gender roles Previous
experiences Child’s aptitude Socializers beliefs
and behaviors Cultural Milieu Eccles’ Expectancy-Value Theory