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G

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Transcript of G

SEX VS. GENDER
FEMINISM
PHILOSOPHICAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHIES ON
FEMINISM

• Began in the 18th and 19th century
• Strives for equality between sexes, individualism, and the integration of women into the political and social arenas
• Emphasizes women’s individual liberties such as right to suffrage, right to education and right to hold public office
• Typically holds the “sameness” of women and men
• First wave of feminism: Equal Rights Amendment in the US

I. Liberal Feminism
I. Liberal Feminism

Mary Wallstonecraft
(1759-1797)
-One of the founding feminist philosophers
-A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)

John Stuart Mill
(1806-1873)
-The Subjection of Women (1869)

MAJORMOVERS:
II. Radical Feminism
• Emerged as a movement in the 1960s—the second wave of feminism

• The “feminist” in “politico-feminist split,” according to Ellen Willis

• Radical reordering of society to abolish patriarchy; challenging gender roles; opposing sexual objectification; and “consciousness-raising”

• Site of struggle: patriarchy-dominated sex relations

• The Personal Is Political, an essay by Carol Hanisch (1969):
“There are no personal solutions at this time. There is only collective action for a collective solution…Women are smart not to struggle alone.”
• Catherine MacKinnon (1993):
"If prostitution is a free choice, why are the women with the fewest choices the ones most often found doing it?"
• Strains:
Lesbian Feminism
Cultural Feminism

II. Radical Feminism
Sarah Hoagland
III.
Socialist
Feminism
• Popular during second wave of feminism
• Liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of women's oppression.
• Barbara Ehrenreich: women’s liberation not just as a subsidiary of class struggle as forwarded by “mechanical Marxists”

III.
Socialist
Feminism
• Strain:
Marxist Feminism:
-Private property is the root of women’s oppression in the present social context
-Against the “bourgeois” view of feminism
-Alexandra Kollontai, The Social Basis of the Woman Question (1909)

• Draws inspiration from Engel’s The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State and August Bebel’s Woman and Socialism
IV. Third World or Postcolonial Feminism
• During third wave of feminism

• Developed as a reaction to “western” hegemonic/universalist theories of feminism

• Gayatri Spivak (1987): feminism cannot operate as a “special-interest glamorization of mainstream (liberal) discourse.” Feminist theory necessitates the “unlearning of one’s privilege” so that one might be “taken seriously by the female constituency of the world.”

• Postcolonial woman as “outside”/disenfranchised or “gendered subaltern”

• Also accounts for racial differences and religion

• Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Under Western Eyes (1984):
the production of the “Third World Woman” as a singular monolithic subject in some recent (Western) feminist texts

IV. Third World or Postcolonial Feminism

• “opposes liberalism as a modernist myopia, a failed experiment, an array of false hopes, a colonialist rationale” (Rogers, 289).
• “An appetite for ambiguity, irony and paradox and a feel for how localized and situated our knowledge is in the end and for all practical purposes”
• Judith Butler, Gender Trouble: Feminismand the Subversion of Identity(1990): identity is a
performative phenomenon
that is heavily regulated. “Identity categories are never merely descriptive, but always normative, and as such, exclusionary.”
V. Postmodern Feminism
• Donna Haraway, Cyborg Manifesto (1993):
“there is nothing about being female that naturally binds women together into a unified category. There is not even such a state as 'being' female, itself a highly complex category constructed in contested sexual scientific discourses and other social practices."
V. Postmodern Feminism
MASCULINITY
Australian sociologist who pioneered studies on masculinity. Although, the main theoretical concern was the gender order as a whole.
Study on hegemonic masculinity provided link between growing research field of men’s studies. It was also used to analyze popular anxieties about men and boys using concepts from feminists accounts of patriarchy and sociological models of gender.
Used in applied fields of education, work, health and counseling.

Raewyn Connell
Male body
However, masculinity is not limited to the biological distinction of male.
Socially constructed idea.
Speaks about gender relations, it concerns the position of men in the gender order and the patterns of practice and behavior by which people engage that position.
“To speak of masculinities is to speak about gender relations. Masculinities are not equivalent to men; they concern the position of men in a gender order. “ (Connell, Masculinites)
The behavior, roles attributed to men.
Masculinity is a dynamic process. There cannot be one definition of masculinity. Period, race, and ethnographic factors of the context are essential in defining masculinity.

What is MASCULINITY?
Other conceptions on masculinity:
Role theory
theory of society based on the power of custom and social conformity.
People learn their roles in the context of the social and perform these under social pressure.
Sex roles
Explains gender patterns of behaviors in align with social customs that gives the definition for manhood and womanhood.

UNDERSTANDING MASCULINITY
HEGEMONY
A Gramscian term which was originally used to understand the stabilization of class relations.
Using the Dual Systems Theory, it can also be applied in understanding gender relations.
Means having a control, dominance, supremacy over.

1970s – There were a lot of works about “the male role” in critic of role norms as the source of oppressive behavior by men.

Feminist theory of patriarchy
The feminist challenge of patriarchy in power structures must caused changes in lives of men.
Weakness of sex role theory is gradually being realized
Recognized ethnographic realism that confirmed the plurality of masculinities, contradictions and complexities of gender construction for men.
Field study on social inequality in Australian high schools.
In interviews with boys, teachers, and parents, they obtained empirical evidences of multiple hierarchies of gender and class terms in a school setting.
Where is this coming from?
Patterns of practice that allowed men’s dominance over women to continue
Focused on a dominant or “privileged” group of men.
Not normal in the statistical sense because only a minority of men enact it. But it was normative.
embodied the currently most honored way of being a man
Hegemony did not mean violence. It meant power achieved through culture, institutions, and persuasion.
Assumed that gender relations were historical, therefore, gender hierarchies were subject to change.
The optimism in this theory:
Even if there had been records on abuse of hegemony in history, there is this possibility that there could be a more humane and less oppressive way of being a hegemonic man. That could then lead to a process of gender hierarchies abolition.
Provided framework for much of the developing research effort on men and masculinity, debunking sex-role theory and categorical models of patriarchy.

HEGEMONIC MASCULINITY
Education
Understanding the dynamics of classroom life.
Analyzing cases of bullying among boys.
Explore relations to the curriculum and difficulties in gender-neutral pedagogy.
Understanding teacher strategies and identities among groups such as physical education instructors.
Criminology
Boys and men tend to commit more of conventional crimes than women and girls do.
Men hold a virtual monopoly on commission of syndicated and white-collar forms of crimes.
Relationship between masculinities and various crimes.
In a forum held by the Sydney Opera House Talks and Ideas, Connell stated that criminologist found no connection between gender-based violence, with male as the oppressor, to the biology of male; it is not because of preexisting masculinity but to create masculinity.



APPLICATION
Media representations of men
Make sense of diversity and selectiveness of images in mass media
Mapping out the relations between representations of different masculinities.
The popularity of body-contact confrontational sports which served as an endlessly renewed symbol of masculinity and its relation to violence and homophobia frequently found in sporting milieus.

Health
Concept of hegemonic and subordinated masculinities helped in understanding men’s exposure to risk and as well as men’s difficulties in responding to disability and injury.


APPLICATION
APPLICATION
Organizations and institutions
The gendered character of bureaucracies and workplaces was increasingly recognized.
Ethnographic studies traced the institutionalization of hegemonic masculinities in organizations and their role in its decision making.
Example is military, where there are specific patterns of hegemonic masculinity but were becoming increasingly problematic.


Psychotherapy
Violence- prevention programs
Emotional-education programs


MOVEMENTS
A movement created in attempt to regain "the deep masculine" parts of themselves which they believe they had lost.

>Done through the use of old fairy tales and poetry to guide men in their spiritual journeys.

>Through rituals and mythopoetic discourse, it also intends to redefine and strengthen men's relationship with other men especially in work places

Mythopoetic men’s Movement
One of the liberation movements in the 1960s. Along side with the Women’s Liberation movement, they both agree that sexism has negatively limited the definition of how a man and a woman should be like.
Main goal of the movement was to expand men's definition of manhood.
Focused on how socialization creates competition among boys and men while setting aside their emotional and relational capacities.
To destroy the sex role stereotypes. For example, the notion that men are not supposed to cry, that they are supposed to be brave and firm.

Men’s liberation Movement
Robert Bly
Established in 1990, Bill McCartney gathered thousands of men in Colorado Folum’s stadium dedicated to the notion of Christian discipleship. They were singing, hugging, and advocacies to be good and faithful husbands, fathers, and churchgoers. Stadium meetings (asked to make promises that would commit them to being better at all these roles).

Promise Keepers is an evangelical organization of men dedicated to uniting men and other relationships by godly living.

PROMISE KEEPERS
Promise 1
“A Promise Keeper is committed to honoring Jesus Christ through worship, prayer and obedience to God’s Word in the power of the Holy Spirit. ”
Promise 2
“A Promise Keeper is committed to pursuing vital relationships with a few other men, understanding that he needs brothers to help him keep his promises.”
Promise 3
“A Promise Keeper is committed to practicing spiritual, moral, ethical, and sexual purity.”
Promise 4
"A Promise Keeper is committed to building strong marriages and families through love, protection and biblical values”
Promise 5
“A Promise Keeper is committed to supporting the mission of his church by honoring and praying for his pastor, and by actively giving his time and resources. ”
Promise 6
“A Promise Keeper is committed to reaching beyond any racial and denominational barriers to demonstrate the power of biblical unity.”
Promise 7
“A Promise Keeper is committed to influencing his world, being obedient to the Great Commandment (Mark 12:30-31) and the Great Commission ”

THE SEVEN PROMISES
LGBTQIAA++

Lesbian. Gay. Bisexual. Transgender. Queer. Intersex. Asexual. Ally

LGBTQIAA++
> spectrum of definition (technicalities)
> categorizing gender into boxes-labeling
> Not enough terms to label
> increases stereotypes
>confusion between gender & sexualities

ISSUES ON DEFINITION
European History
19th century
Doctors and scientists
Sigmund Freud (did not consider as an illness/crime)
Magnus Hirschfield (Berlin’s Institute for sexual science and destroyed by Nazis on May 10, 1933)

PRIDE AND MOVEMENT
MARRIAGE
EQUALITY
Semantic distinction between civil partners and marriage was blurred. Being married is taken out into background

They justifiably feel that having a law exclusively for same sex couple segregates people according to their sexuality, and seek equal treatment.


Church and the
Movement
DISCTIMINATION ACROSS SEXUALITIES
Hiring
Glass Ceiling
Compensations & Benefits
Sexual Harassment


Work-related discrimination:
Hate crimes committed against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and/or transgendered individuals constitute the third-highest category of hate crimes reported to the FBI -- 14% of all hate crimes reported nationally, according to the Human Rights Campaign.
And while violent crime rates have been declining generally, the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs reports that the number of actual or suspected anti-gay murders is on the rise: from 14 in 1997 to 33 in 1998 and 28 in 1999.

HATE CRIMES
SEX
GENDER
an achieved status which is constructed through psychological, cultural, and social means.

a determination made through the application of
socially agreed upon biological criteria
for classifying person as females or males.

Primary Sex Characteristics
Secondary Sex Characteristics
can be achieved by establishing and sustaining by the socially required identificatory displays that proclaims one’s membership in a certain category.
SEX CATEGORY
DOING

GENDER
rather than being an innate quality of individuals, is a psychologically ingrained social construct that actively surfaces in everyday human interaction.

COMPONENT:
Gendered assessment of behavior
= actions are being compared to the accountability standards of a person’s sex category.

DISCRIMINATION
ACROSS
SEXUALITIES
MASCULINITY
Too fast to be womEn?
GENDER as a ROLE
conceals the work that involved in producing gender in everyday activities;
help us make sense of our environment, they influence relationships and our own views.
promoted by society, with visual displays and traits assigned to specific gender roles.

GENDER as a DISPLAY
Inspired by Erving Goffman’s Gender Display: “a way to conceptualize the ways in which individuals act in a gender appropriate manner.”
gender is exhibited/portrayed through interaction.
There is a SCHEDULING in displaying gender.

S.O.G.I.E.
S.O.G.I.E.
Sexual Orientation,
Gender Identity,
and Expression

SEXUAL
ORIENTATION
Who am I attracted to?

heterosexual
homosexual
bisexual
pansexual
asexual
demisexual
greysexual
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
GENDER
IDENTITY
How do I see myself?
GENDER EXPRESSION
what a person displays to the world
Sources:

Ciccarelli, S. K., White, J. N., & George College and State University. (2015). Sexuality and gender. In Psychology (4th ed., pp. 422-453). Pearson Education Inc.

West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1987). Doing Gender. Gender & Society, 1(2), 125-151.

MacKinnon, Catherine A. (1984) "Not a moral issue." Yale Law and Policy Review 2:321-345. Reprinted in: MacKinnon (1989).

Hanisch, Carol (1969). “The Personal Is Political.”

Willis, Ellen (1984). “Radical Feminism and Feminist Radicalism.” Social Text, No. 9/10,
The 60's without Apology (Spring - Summer, 1984), pp. 91118: Duke University Press. Retrieved from jstor.org

Ehrenreich, Barbara (1976). “What is Socialist Feminism?” Retrieved from.

Rogers, Mary. 2001. “Contemporary Feminist Theory.” Pp. 285-296 in Handbook of Social Theory, edited by Geroge Ritzer and Barry Smart. London: Sage Publications.

Kollontai, Alexandra (1909). “The Social Basis of the Woman Question.”

Haraway, Donna. "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century". Stanford University.


SOGIE is about recognizing a person’s right to be himself or herself, and the “him” and “her” may not correspond to the biological body. (Tan, 2014)

“The story of women’s struggle for equality belongs to no single feminist nor to any one organization but to the collective efforts of all who care about human rights.”

- Gloria Steinem

What is Feminism?

- Feminism is about the awareness of women’s disadvantaged position and the conscious actions taken to improve women’s position.
- Feminism, in its most basic sense, relates to the advocacy of gender equality and women’s right and an ideology that is characterised by its challenge to patriarchy.
- Feminism has different meanings to different people depending on the context within which they live.
- Women all over the world have varying perspectives that can all be considered feminist because of their different life experiences.

HISTORICAL
BACKGROUND OF THE
MOVEMENT
• opened up opportunities for women, with a focus on suffrage and overturning legal obstacles to gender equality
• formally began at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 when three hundred men and women rallied to the cause of equality for women
• generally propelled by middle class, Western, cisgender, and white women

FIRST WAVE
• broadened its focus to a wide range of issues
• influenced by the rise of a Marxist intellectual movement-- women’s struggle was considered as a class struggle

SECOND WAVE
THIRD WAVE
• came as a response to perceived failures of the second wave and also as a response to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second wave

• puts emphasis on personal sexual autonomy, distaste for sexual shaming and commitment to enthusiastic sexual consent

Raewyn Connell
Born: Robert William Connell
January 3 1944 (During the Cold War)
72 years old

Australian Sociologist
Professor of Sociology (foundation chair) at
Macquarie University in 1976 (32)
youngest Australian academic to hold a
professorial position in sociology
Professor Emeritus, University of Sydney
Studied BA Hons in University of Melbourne
PhD in University of Sydney
visiting professor of Australian studies at Harvard University (1991–1992)
advisor to United Nations initiatives on gender equality and peacemaking
member of The Australian Sociological Association (TASA) and was President of its predecessor SAANZ
In 2010 TASA established the Raewyn Connell Prize, awarded every two years, for the best first book in Australian sociology.

member of the Australian Labor Party (up until its turn to neoliberalism)
involved in debates about labour movement strategy (Socialism & Labor, 1978)
the peace movement
feminist groups such as Sydney Action for Juárez,
and supporter of public education.
As a teacher, Raewyn has emphasised student control of learning processes and collaborative approaches to knowledge.
Written or co-written 21 books and more than 150 research papers
Her work is translated into 16 languages
Masculinities alone has been translated into Italian, Swedish, German, Spanish and Chinese, and is the most cited research publication in its field

Member of Editorial Board, Sexualities
Member of Editorial Board, The British Journal of Sociology
Senior Editor, Theory and Society
Member of Editorial Board, Journal of Sociology; Gender Work and Organization
Member of Editorial Board, The International Journal of Inclusive Education
Partner: Pam Benton, died 1997 due to cancer
Daughter: Kylie Benton-Connell
1997: After the death of her much loved, highly talented and supportive partner, she announced to the public that she is a female
2006: Final and formal public declaration after some medical intervention

PERSONAL LIFE
Ruling Class, Ruling Culture (1977)— a study of the Australian ruling class - the main companies, the leading political groups and the links and conflicts among them. The author also analyses class inequalities in education, the development of children's ideas about class, the role of the mass media and the way class relations are cemented culturally and psychologically
Making the Difference (1982) – most discussed Australian study of social inequalities in education
Gender and Power (1987) Raewyn developed an influential sociological theory of gender
Southern Theory (2007) discusses theorists unfamiliar in the European canon of social science, and explores the possibility of a genuinely global social science

SELECTED WORKS

American Sociological Association Award, for distinguished contribution to the study of sex and gender
Australian Sociological Association Award, for distinguished service to sociology in Australia

AWARDS AND HONORS
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