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World History: Chapter 1 Introduction

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Transcript of World History: Chapter 1 Introduction

World History: Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 1: The Peopling of the World, Prehistory-2500 B.C.
www.classzone.com

Iceman
The Hominid Rap
Louis and Mary Leakey
Agriculture Emerges
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Go to: Powerpoint Palooza
Partnered Students Handout
Hammurabi, the king of righteousness,
On whom Shamash has conferred the Law,
am I.

When Marduk sent me to rule over men,
to give the protection of right to the land,
I did right and in righteousness brought about
the well-being of the oppressed. Below are situations Hammurabi faced. 
You and your partner decide what you think to be a fair way to deal with the problem.
Then together we’ll view what Hammurabi actually declared. 
We’ll find out if Marduk, the supreme god, will be pleased with your decisions?

What should be done to the carpenter who builds a house that falls and kills the owner?
What should be done about a wife who ignores her duties and belittles her husband?
What should be done when a "sister of god" (or nun) enters the wine shop for a drink?
What should be done if a son is adopted and then the birth-parents want him back?
What happens if a man is unable to pay his debts?
What should happen to a boy who slaps his father?
What happens to the wine seller who fails to arrest bad characters gathered at her shop?
How is the truth determined when one man brings an accusation against another?


http://www.phillipmartin.info/hammurabi/hammurabi_situation_index.htm
Compiled and Illustrated by Phillip Martin copyright 1998

Teacher’s Notes:
1. Discuss (review) with the students what life was like for people when they were hunters and gatherers.   Then, discuss changes that took place in society to bring early people into the Neolithic Age.  The five characteristics of civilization – including government & Laws

2.  To the Board Next, ask the students to brainstorm with you as you come up with positive and negative aspects of people starting to live in villages, towns, and large communities.  Write these ideas on the board or on an overhead projector.  A possible list may include the following:
Positive Aspects Negative Aspects protection from danger army, taxes, slavery
greater supplies of food waste disposal opportunity for commerce governing large groups of citizens new job opportunities.

The list could go on and on.  It may take a bit of leading, but eventually, the students will come up with the problems governing large groups of people.  People have been killing, stealing, and maiming for quite a long time.  How did the earliest civilizations handle these situations?   Have we made any progress in four thousand years? 

Hammurabi wasn't the first ruler to establish a code of laws.  Earlier records date back four hundred years.  Many of Hammurabi's laws, as it turns out,  were exact copies of earlier Sumerian laws.  His code, however, is the best preserved legal document giving us an idea of the life and social structure of the people during Hammurabi's reign. 

It is now time for your students to determine if he was an enlightened, benevolent ruler, or a cruel, demanding tyrant.  

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

A modern-day Egyptian guide uses his Coleman lantern to illuminate the amazing hieroglyphic text covering the walls deep within the tunnels below the Saqqara pyramid.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

2. The Akkadian Empire lasted about 200 years, 2350 – approx. 2150 B.C.E.

The Ziggurat at Ur was first excavated by British archaeologist Woolley in 1923.
The Iraqi Directorate of Antiquities restored its lower stages in the 1980s.

WATCH VIDEO CLIP

The mummy of Ramses II (1304 -1237 BC ) still preserved today, 3,200 years later,
at the Cairo Museum.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Take a panoramic view of the Sphinx at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/obelisk/explore/sphinx.html

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

The Sphinx and Pyramid of Khafre at Giza.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Two centuries after Hammurabi’s reign, the Babylonian Empire fell to nomadic raiders. New groups would rule over the Fertile Crescent in the future. However, the innovative ideas of the Sumerians and their descendants in the region would be adopted by the later peoples – including the Assyrians, the Persians, Phoenicians and the Hebrews (Jews). We’ll discuss these folks in CH 3 and 4.



But right now…
let’s leave our discussion
of these civilizations on
the Tigris and Euphrates
in Mesopotamia and
move on to discuss our
second Early River Valley
Civilization –
this one,
on the Nile River.

WATCH VIDEO CLIP

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

The pyramid at Saqqara is believed by archaeologists to be one of the earliest.

What is unusual about it? What clues does it offer to how the pyramids were built?

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD 2920-2575 BCE
Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Menes.
Foundation of the capital Memphis.
Early Step Pyramid is built at Saqqara.

OLD KINGDOM - 2660-2180 BCE
The Great Pyramids of Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), Menkaure (Mycerinus) are built at Giza.
Pyramids of Sahure, Neferirkare, Raneferef, Neuserre are built at Abusir.

MIDDLE KINGDOM 2180-1550 BCE
Fragmentation of centralized power.
Kings in Thebes establish control over all Egypt.
Chaos leads central administration in Lower Egypt to disappear following infiltration by Hyksos,
an Asiatic people in the Nile Delta.
Upper Egypt dominated by kings in Thebes. (CH 2 Coverage)
----------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------
NEW KINGDOM 1550-1070 BCE (CH 4 Coverage)
Theban king Ahmose expels the Hyksos and reunites Egypt.
Reigns of such kings as Amenhotep and Thutmose (Thutmosis). Memphis now main residential city.
Ramses II (1290- 1224 BC) divides power in Middle East with the Hittites; Qantir capital of Egypt.
Invasions of mysterious sea peoples wreck havoc throughout Mediterranean region.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Future history….
Alexander the Great of Macedonia / Greece conquers and the Ptolemy dynasty governs; 332 – 30 BC
After the defeat of Cleopatra, the last Ptolemy ruler, the Roman emperors exploit Egypt as the main
production center of wheat, papyrus and textiles for the vast Roman Empire; 30 BC – 394 AD


PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

What do you infer from this quote, what did Herodotus mean by it?

Examine this quote:

“Egypt, the gift of the Nile.”
~ Herodotus, Greek historian (484-432 B.C.E.)

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

CH 2 Sec. 1
Primary Source Document Analysis: “Hammurabi’s Code” (see handout)

Cute website
http://www.phillipmartin.info/hammurabi/hammurabi_situation_index.htm

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Can you give examples of cultural diffusion in your society today?

Cultural diffusion is the spread of elements of one culture to another people,
generally through trade.

Take the spread of writing. Similarities between the pictograms of Egyptian hieroglyphics, Sumerian cuneiform, and the Indus script are striking.

An artist’s conception of the building of the great Khufu pyramid at Giza, Sphinx in foreground.

What details do you notice and what can you infer about how this artist thinks the pyramids
were built? Does this match the theory supported by the Saqqara pyramid?

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.


TODAY’s OBJECTIVES:
Summarize how geography affected the development of Egyptian culture.
Explain the importance of pharaohs, pyramids, and trade in the Old Kingdom period of Egypt.
Describe the ancient Egyptian religion, social structure, and technology.
Explain what occurred during the shift from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom in Egypt.

AGENDA: Please begin your Warm-Up immediately!
WARM-UP: Glance over the following before your Opening QUIZ !
The Map on p. 34; the Daily Life on p. 36; and Spotlight On on p. 38
LECTURE & DISCUSSION over Homework, CH 2, Section 2
REVIEW

ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME:
ALL: Read CH 2, Sections 3-4 “Indus Valley & Ancient China” pp. 42-51 in Textbook !

* REMINDER: TEXTBOOKS are REQUIRED in class EVERY DAY!

Read more about the Pyramids on p. 36.

AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Pre-A.P. World History
Mr. Loessin; Room 167
Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50

ENTER

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia)
Egyptian Civilization - Nile River

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: (See your Packet, p. 15)
“The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

2. Built capital, Babylon, on Euphrates river

1. Overtook Sumerians around 2,000 B.C.

C. Babylonian Empire

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

City-States in Mesopotamia

Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia)

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline:
“The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Ancient China - Huang He (Yellow) River

Harappan Civilization - Indus River

Egyptian Civilization - Nile River

Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia)

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: (See your Packet, p. 12)
4 early River Valley Civilizations

AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Pre-A.P. World History
Mr. Loessin; Room 167
Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50

Ancient China - Huang He (Yellow) River

Harappan Civilization - Indus River

Egyptian Civilization - Nile River

Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia)

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: (See your Packet, p. 15)
4 early River Valley Civilizations

His act set an important precedent – idea that the
government was responsible for what occurred in
society.

Strict in nature –
“the punishment fits the crime” / “eye for an eye”
Such laws were adopted by neighbors – many
similar found in Hebrew scriptures (Old Testament)

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

he wisely took all the laws of the region’s city-states
and unified them into one code. This helped unify
the region.
Engraved in stone, erected all over the empire.

A total of 282 laws are etched on this 7 ft. 5 in. tall black basalt pillar (stele). The top portion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. Although Hammurabi's Code is not the first code of laws (the first records date four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting the social structure of Babylon during Hammurabi's rule.
This amazing find was discovered in 1901 and today is in the famous Louvre Museum in Paris, France.

a. Famous Code of Law

3. Babylonian Reign of Hammurabi

3. Reign of Hammurabi [1792-1750 B.C.E.]

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

2. Built captial, Babylon, on Euphrates river

1. Overtook Sumerians around 2,000 B.C.E.

C. Babylonian Empire

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

Other Sumerian Achievements
(see textbook p. 31)

one of the earliest sketched maps

astronomy

a number system in base 60
from which stems our modern units of measuring time
and the 360 degrees of a circle.

Invented wheel, the sail, the plow
First to use bronze.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

1. One of the first writing systems - Cuneiform

C. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

III. SUMERIAN CULTURE

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

2. Gilgamesh Epic, one of the earliest works of literature.
Contains a “flood story” that predates the Hebrew Old Testament story
of Noah by at least 2,000 years.

God of the clouds / air was Enlil – the most powerful god.
(Nearly 3,000 others – with human qualities.
They were viewed as often hostile and unpredictable – similar to the
natural environment around them.)

1. Belief in many gods - polytheism

A. RELIGION

III. SUMERIAN CULTURE

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

2. Gilgamesh Epic, one of the earliest works of literature.
Contains a “flood story” that predates the Hebrew Old Testament story
of Noah by at least 2,000 years.

God of the clouds / air was Enlil – the most powerful god.
(Nearly 3,000 others – with human qualities.
They were viewed as often hostile and unpredictable – similar to the
natural environment around them.)

1. Belief in many gods - polytheism

A. RELIGION

III. SUMERIAN CULTURE

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

The Funerary Scene
This scene depicts what occurs after a person has died, according to the ancient Egyptians.
The Egyptians had an elaborate and complex belief in the afterlife.

b. Belief in afterlife!

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

a. Over 2,000
Ra, Sun god; Horus, sky god; Isis, goddess of fertility (associated with Nile – mother “giver of life”)

1. Polytheistic

A. RELIGION

III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
Egypt on the Nile

Tablet XI

DID YOU KNOW…
Like many ancient civilizations, the Sumerians also had “a flood story.”
That’s not surprising given their challenging environment sitting
between two unpredictable rivers…in their view, such a
cataclysmic event did, indeed, destroy their “entire world.”

The Epic of Gilgamesh is, perhaps, the oldest written story on Earth.
It comes to us from ancient Sumeria, and was originally written on
12 clay tablets in cuneiform script. It is about the adventures of the
cruel King Gilgamesh of Uruk (ca. 2750 and 2500 BCE).

In tablet XI we read about Per-napishtim, a man who built a boat
and was saved from a great flood brought about by angry gods.
On p. 77 in your textbook you can compare Per-napishtim’s story to Noah’s story in the biblical book of Genesis as well as a “flood story” from India.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

COOL WEBSITE to visit:

GILGAMESH
Great website to visit: http://gilgamesh.psnc.pl/

Osiris would weigh each person’s heart on a scale against the weight of a feather.
If the heart tipped the scale, heavy with sin, the Devourer of Souls would pounce on the heart.
If not, the soul would live forever in the Other World.

b. Belief in afterlife! The dead were judged by Osiris, god of the dead.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

a. Over 2,000
Ra, Sun god; Horus, sky god; Isis, goddess of fertility (associated with Nile – mother “giver of life”)

1. Polytheistic

A. RELIGION

III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
Egypt on the Nile

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

And why do you think he believed it important to place the laws in prominent locations so the people could visibly see them?

Why do you think Hammurabi thought it important to place all the cities within his Empire under the same uniform code of laws?

he wisely took all the laws of the region’s city-states
and unified them into one code. This helped unify
the region.

Engraved in stone, erected all over the empire.

A total of 282 laws are etched on this 7 ft. 5 in. tall black basalt pillar (stele). The top portion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. Although Hammurabi's Code is not the first code of laws (the first records date four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting the social structure of Babylon during Hammurabi's rule.
This amazing find was discovered in 1901 and today is in the famous Louvre Museum in Paris, France.

a. Famous Code of Law

3. Reign of Hammurabi

Above: Canopic jars for the body’s various organs.
Right: Coffin of a Middle Kingdom government official.

Desiring to make it to the Other World safely, Egyptians of all classes made special preparations for their burials, including
mummification – embalming and preserving the corpse to prevent it from decaying.
(See text, p. 40 “Something In Common”)

b. Belief in afterlife! The dead were judged by Osiris, god of the dead.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

a. Over 2,000
Ra, Sun god; Horus, sky god; Isis, goddess of fertility (associated with Nile – mother “giver of life”)

1. Polytheistic

A. RELIGION

III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
Egypt on the Nile

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Define
type of
government

1. Took control of the region, creating world’s first empire -
when several peoples, nations, or previously independent
states are placed under the control of one ruler.

B. Sargon of Akkad (ca. 2,350 B.C.E.)

3,000 – 2,000 B.C.E. the City-States began to war with each other.
These internal struggles meant they were too weak to ward off an attack
by an outside enemy.

IV. First EMPIRE Builders

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Cylinder seals and their ancient impressions on administrative documents and locking devices are
our richest source for a range of meaningful subject matters.
A wealth of these have been discovered at Sumerian sites. *

1. One of the first writing systems - Cuneiform

C. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

III. SUMERIAN CULTURE

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

But not allowed to attend schools
(could not read or write)

Had more rights than in many later civilizations
(could own property, join lower ranks of priesthood)

Left: Statue of Sumerian woman with hands clasped at chest,
ca. 2600-2300 B.C. Right: Gypsum statue of man and
woman at Inanna Temple at Nippur, circa 2600-2300 B.C.

2. Women

Three social classes
a. Priests and royalty (kings)
b. Wealthy merchants
c. Ordinary workers

[Slaves] –were not free citizens and thus not included in class system

B. SOCIETY

III. SUMERIAN CULTURE

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

Define
type of
government

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat – a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure.

D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh

C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land

each city had its own government / rulers, warriors,
it’s own patron god, and functioned like an independent country

A. Although all the cities shared the same culture …

II. The City-State Structure of Government

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

Example of Religious Syncretism
Right: The depiction of the seated mother holding the suckling child Horus was a common painted image throughout Egypt and is reminiscent of the iconography of Mary and Jesus. Also, Horus, being the child of Osiris and Isis – the god of the living and the dead - would grow up to defeat the evil Seth and cast him into darkness. Seth eternally strives for revenge, battling Horus at every turn. When Horus wins, Maat (justice) is upheld and the world is at peace. Horus then protects us in this life. Given all that…can you see how the early Christians had an easy time marketing their new Roman religion to the Egyptians, particularly after convincing them that Mary, mother of Jesus, was an incarnation of Isis!

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Above: The pantheon of Egyptian gods*

Right: Images of household gods were often displayed on altars in Egyptian homes. This is the goddess Taweret one of the most popular. Taweret protected mothers and their children against the risks during pregnancy and birth.
The goddess was usually depicted as a pregnant hippopotamus with the limbs and paws of a lion and a mane in the form of a crocodile's tail. Her frightening appearance was probably meant to scare away evil spirits.
ca. 712 - 332 B.C.

a. Over 2,000
Ra, the sun god; Horus, sky god; Isis, mother goddess “giver of life” associated with Nile

1. Polytheistic

A. RELIGION

III. EGYPTIAN CULTURE

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
Egypt on the Nile

Reflection Time:

How does what’s happening to people
at any given moment affect how they think about their God(s)?

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Marduk, the Dragon god

God of the clouds / air was Enlil – the most powerful god.
(Nearly 3,000 others – with human qualities.
The Sumerians viewed their gods as hostile and unpredictable –
similar to the natural environment around them.)

1. Belief in many gods - polytheism

A Sumerian warrior-god, gold figurine, ca. 2,400-2,500 B.C.E.

A. RELIGION

III. SUMERIAN CULTURE

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

3. Limited natural resources
- stone, wood, metal

2. No natural barriers for protection
- small villages lying in open plain were defenseless

1. Unpredictable flooding / dry summer months

B. Three Disadvantages / Environmental Challenges

Sumerians were first to settle in this region, attracted by the rich soil.

3. Because of this region’s shape and the richness of it’s soil,
it is called the Fertile Crescent.
- the rivers flood at least once a year,
leaving a thick bed of mud called silt.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

I. GEOGRAPHY

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

3. Because of this region’s shape and the richness of its soil,
it is called the Fertile Crescent.
- the rivers flood at least once a year,
leaving a thick bed of mud called silt.

2. a flat plain known as Mesopotamia lies between the
two rivers

1. Except in region between Tigris / Euphrates rivers

Fertile Crescent

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

SW Asia
(the Middle East)

A. Mostly dry desert climate in SW Asia (Middle East)

I. GEOGRAPHY

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

The pharaoh Akenaton and his wife-sister Nefertiti worshiping the sun god, Ra.

2. Believed each pharaoh ruled even after death, because
they all possessed the same eternal spirit = ka;
and being gods, they naturally bore full responsibility for Egypt’s well-being.

Define
type of
government

Type of government where the political rulers are thought to be divinely-guided, or even divine themselves is a theocracy.

1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles

C. The Pharaoh [means, royal house] – the ruler of Egypt

II. UNITED EGYPT’S GOVERNMENT

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
Egypt on the Nile

Let’s now examine Sumerian beliefs and other elements of their culture.

Through their trade with neighboring peoples, the Sumerians
spread their new innovations. This is cultural diffusion – the
spread of one culture’s ideas, products, traditions, beliefs etc.
to another people.

G. Military commanders eventually became ruler / monarch
- then began passing rule to their own heirs,
creating a new structure of government called a
Dynasty – a series of rulers descending from a single family line.


F. Powerful priests held much political power in the beginning.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat – a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure.

D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh

C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land

each city had its own government / rulers, warriors,
it’s own patron god, and functioned like an independent country

A. Although all the cities shared the same culture …

II. The City-State Structure of Government

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

Define
type of
government

Right: Standing nude
"priest-king,"
ca. 3300–3000 B.C.;
Uruk.

Left: Bas-relief
depicting priests
intervening between
worshipers and gods.

F. Powerful priests held much political power in the beginning.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

At center of each city was the walled temple with a
ziggurat – a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure.

D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh

C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land

each city had its own government / rulers, warriors,
it’s own patron god, and functioned like an independent country

A. Although all the cities shared the same culture …

II. The City-State Structure of Government

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

2. Deserts on both sides of Nile
- provided natural protection against invaders
- also reduced interaction with other people

Egypt would develop mostly in isolation and therefore, a culture that was quite unique.

1. Unlike Mesopotamia, the Nile was predictable

C. Environment

- to go south, sail catching the Mediterranean breeze

3. Nile provided reliable transportation
to go north, drift with the current toward the sea

2. Upper Egypt developed later upstream

around the Nile delta which flows into the Mediterranean Sea.

1. Most of Egypt’s history focused around
Lower Egypt,

I. GEOGRAPHY

B. Upper and Lower Egypt

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
Egypt on the Nile

WATCH VIDEO CLIP


Compare and Contrast…
Earlier we discussed the Sumerians and the effect their particular environment may have had on the way they viewed their gods.
Compare the Sumerian view to the Egyptian view and explain why the Egyptian view may have been so different.



4. Worshiped as a god – giver of life and benevolent

Irrigating scene painted on tomb at Thebes

3. Intricate network of irrigation ditches

2. Yearly flooding, but predictable
Regular cycle: flood, plant, harvest, flood, plant, harvest...

1. Egypt’s settlements arose along narrow strip of land made
fertile by the river

A. The Nile

Nile River

I. GEOGRAPHY

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” (See your Packet, p. 15b)
Egypt on the Nile

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

What do we mean by…

the “Old Kingdom” period?

The pyramids were built mainly in the
Old Kingdom Period.

The Great Pyramids at Giza.

3. Therefore, Pharaoh’s tomb very important, because it was still a place of rule.
Built massive tombs called pyramids.

2. Believed each pharaoh ruled even after death, because
they all possessed the same eternal spirit = ka;
and being god, naturally bore full responsibility for Egypt’s well-being.

Define
type of
government

Type of government where the political rulers are thought to be divinely-guided, or even divine themselves is a theocracy.

1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles

C. The Pharaoh [means, royal house] – the ruler of Egypt

II. UNITED EGYPT’S GOVERNMENT

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
Egypt on the Nile

Invasions,
internal fighting,
and a severe famine

all contributed to the end of the Akkadian Empire.

sample Akkadian text

Arabic Hebrew

3. Spoke a Semitic language (related to Arabic and Hebrew)

2. The Akkadian Empire lasted about 200 years

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Define
type of
government

1. Took control of the region, creating world’s first empire -
bringing together several peoples, nations, or previously
independent states and place them under the control
of one ruler.

B. Sargon of Akkad (ca. 2,350 B.C.E.)

3,000 – 2,000 B.C.E. the City-States began to war with each other.
These internal struggle meant they were too weak to ward off an attack
by an outside enemy.

IV. First EMPIRE Builders

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

Historians wonder…
Did the Sumerians develop this new type of government on their own, or did they learn and adopt it only after contact with other peoples –
cultural diffusion?

Define
type of
government

G. Military commanders eventually became ruler / monarch
- then began passing rule to their own heirs,
creating a new structure of government called a
Dynasty – a series of rulers descending from a single family line.


F. Powerful priests held much political power in the beginning.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat – a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure.

D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh

Define
type of
government

C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land

each city had its own government / rulers, warriors,
it’s own patron god, and functioned like an independent country

A. Although all the cities shared the same culture …

II. The City-State Structure of Government

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”


Sumerian innovations in achieving civilization
set example others would follow.

But to arrive at these solutions,
required organized government.
Let’s now look at the type of government the Sumerians had.


3. Traded with people
around them
for the products
they lacked.

Initiated Bronze Age.

2. Built city walls with
mud bricks

1. Irrigation ditches

C. Solutions

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

3. Limited natural resources (stone, wood, metal)

2. No natural barriers for protection
- small villages lying in open plain were defenseless

1. Unpredictable flooding / dry summer months

B. Three Disadvantages / Environmental Challenges

Sumerians were first to settle in this region, attracted by the rich soil.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

I. GEOGRAPHY

City-States in Mesopotamia

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

Define
type of
government

Type of government where the political rulers are thought to be divinely-guided, or even divine themselves is a theocracy.

1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles

C. The Pharaoh [means, royal house] – the ruler of Egypt

3. Creates first Egyptian dynasty

2. Capital: Memphis

Before 3000 B.C., there was the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt. When Egypt was united, these two crowns were combined into the Double Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.

B. Menes, the king of Upper Egypt,
1. united the two regions – Upper and Lower – in 3,100 B.C.E.

A. Unlike Sumeria, no independent city-states in Egypt

II. UNITED EGYPT’S GOVERNMENT

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
Egypt on the Nile

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

What do you know?
What are some leading theories about how the enormous pyramids were constructed by the Egyptians over 4,000 years ago?

The pyramids were built mainly in the
Old Kingdom Period.

The Great Pyramids at Giza.

3. Therefore, Pharaoh’s tomb very important, because it was still a place of rule.
Built massive tombs called pyramids.

2. Believed each pharaoh ruled even after death, because
they all possessed the same eternal spirit = ka;
and being god, naturally bore full responsibility for Egypt’s well-being.

Define
type of
government

Type of government where the political rulers are thought to be divinely-guided, or even divine themselves is a theocracy.

1. were considered gods; served both political and religious roles

C. The Pharaoh [means, royal house] – the ruler of Egypt

II. UNITED EGYPT’S GOVERNMENT

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations”
Egypt on the Nile

AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Pre-A.P. World History
Mr. Loessin; Room 167
Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50

Characteristics of Civilization
(graph on p21)

Specialized Workers
Record Keeping
Advanced Technology
Advanced Cities
Complex Institutions
Essential References
Chapter 2: Early River Civilization, 3500 B.C. - 459 B.C.
City-States in Mesopotamia
Section 1
Pyramids on The Nile
Section 2
Planned Cities on the Indus
Section 3
River Dynasties in China
Section 4
Chapter 3: People and ideas on the Move, 2000 B.C. - 250 B.C.
The Indo-Europeans

Section 1
Hinduism and Buddhism Develop
Section 2
Seafaring Traders
Section 3
The Origins of Judaism
Section 4
Chapter 4: First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C. - 200 B.C.
The Egyptian and Nubian Empires
Section 1
The Assyrian Empire
Section 2
The Persian Empire
Section 3
The Unification of China
Section 4
UNIT 1
UNIT 2
Beginnings of Civilization
4 Million B.C. - 200B.C.

Chapter 5: Classical Greece, 2000 B.C. - 300B.C.
Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea
Section 1
Warring City-States
Section 2
Democracy and Greece's Golden Age
Section 3
Alexander's Empire
Section 4
The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
Section 5
Chapter 6: Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C. - A.D. 500
The Roman Republic
Section 1
The Roman Empire
Section 2
The Rise of Christianity
Section 3
The Decline of the Roman Empire
Section 4
Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization
Section 5
Chapter 7: India and China Establish Empires, 400 B.C. - A.D. 550
N
India's First Empires
Section 1
Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture
Section 2
Han Emperors in China
Section 3
Chapter 8: African Civilizations, 1500 B.C. - A.D. 700
New Directions in Government and Society 2000 B.C. - A.D. 700
Diverse Societies in Africa
Section 1
Migration Case Study: Bantu-Speaking Peoples
Section 2
The Kingdom of Aksum
Section 3
Chapter 9: The Americas: A Separate World, 40,000 B.C. - A.D. 700
The Earliest Americans
Section 1
Early Mesoamerican Civilizations
Section 2
Early Civilizations of the Andes
Section 3
UNIT 3
An Age of Exchange and Encounter
500 - 1500

Chapter 10: The Muslim World, 600 - 1250
The Rise of Islam
Section 1
Islam Expands
Section 2
Muslim Culture
Section 3
Chapter 11: Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact, 500 - 1500
The Byzantine Empire
Section 1
The Russian Empire
Section 2
Turkish Empires Rise in Anatolia
Section 3
Chapter 12: Empires in East Asia, 600 -1350
Tang and Song China
Section 1
The Mongol Conquests
Section 2
The Mongol Empire
Section 3
Feudal Powers in Japan
Section 4
Kingdoms of Southeast Asia and Korea
Section 5
Chapter 13: European Middle Ages, 500 - 1200
Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
Section 1
Feudalism in Europe
Section 2
The Age of Chivalry
Section 3
The Power of the Church
Section 4
Chapter 14: The Formation of Western Europe, 800 - 1500
Church Reform and the Crusades
Section 1
Changes in Medieval Society
Section 2
England and France Develop
Section 3
The Hundred Years' War and the Plague
Section 4
Chapter 15: Societies and Empires of Africa, 800 - 1500
North and Central African Societies
Section 1
West African Civilizations
Section 2
Eastern City-States and Southern Empires
Section 3
Scopes-Monkey Trial
World History in 7 minutes
Reviews on pages 11, 18, and 23
page 65
page 71
page 76
page 82

Minoans
Legacy of Atlantis

SEE---Prehistory prezi
Name:
Period:
Prehistory Notes

History is the story of ___________________.


Prehistory is the tern we use for the period before what?


What is Culture?


“Culture is learned, not biologically determined.” Explain this statement.


Please define Archeology.



The Stone Age (3 stages):

1) Paleolithic Age




2) Mesolithic Age




3) Neolithic Age



The Iceman




History is the story of humanity.

-written records date back over 5,000 years

-Humans have been earth about 2,000,000 years


The period before writing is called PREHISTORY
Culture:
What is Culture?

How we...

Meet material needs

Use skills and tools to meet needs

***Ideas, Customs, and objects that exist in social groups
For Example-
Political concepts

Religious beliefs

Arts

Science

Leisure activities

** Culture is learned, not biologically determined.

NATURE and NURTURE



Archeology- Study of remains of the past

STONE AGE

Most artifacts of Prehistory are made of stone, thus we call the period the Stone Age.

3 Stages

Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age

Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age

Neolithic (New Stone) Age


PALEOLITHIC AGE

2,000,000-10,000 B.C.

Characteristics of the age

Cold climate

Glaciers covered much of the earth

Middle portion of earth warm enough to
sustain life


**Hunters and Gatherers (Nomads/Nomadic)

Lived in small groups

Moved when food supply was used up


Tools of...stone, bone, wood

Weapons...spears, clubs

Lived in...caves, under rock ledges, in pits
covered with brush or animal hides

Clothes...animal furs and hides


*****Learned how to make FIRE******

Warm shelters

Cook food

Scare animals away


********Language Developed*********

Enabled people to work in groups


Paleolithic people made...

Beads

Ornaments

Needles

Traps

Fishing Hooks

Bows and Arrows

Used: stone, bone, horn, ivory, and wood


***CAVE PAINTING***** (see Lascaux Pics)
Mesolithic Age

10,000-8,000 B.C. (12,000-10,000 years ago)

Glaciers shrank

Forrest replaced ice sheets in some areas

Grassland increased

Deserts


Larger animals became extinct

People hunted for smaller deer and wild pigs

Fished in lakes and rivers

****Late Mesolithic people learned to harvest
wild barley and wheat

Grinding stones used to prepare grain for meals


******Some permanent homes are built******
Neolithic Age

8,000-5,000 B.C. (10,000-7,000 years ago)

Producing food (using seed productively)

Many scholars believe the people of the Middle East
were the first to realize they could plant seed.


***Animals are domesticated (tamed/controlled)***

Dogs, Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, Goats

*Provided another steady source of food.

Allowed for larger groups of people to live in the
same area in small and large groups.

Villages and permanent settlements develop.


Leisure time increases due to steady food supply:

Pottery

Baskets

Weaving Cloth


********Inventions***********

Wheel

Sail

-------Transportation and Trade Increase

Farmers trained oxen to pull a plow (more land farmed,
larger harvests, larger population possible)



LEADERS EMERGE
Otzi the Iceman
Discovery of Lucy
Full transcript