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Review of anatomy and physiology
Transcript of Review of anatomy and physiology
Unit 1: what is this class about?
anatomy: The study of the structure an shape of the body and its parts
physiology: study of how the body and its part work or function
Levels of anatomy:
organ system overview:
Unit 2: What are the building blocks of Anatomy?
- parts of an atom:Proton, neutron, and electron
-Isotopes are atoms that have the same atomic numbers but different atomic masses.
3 bonds: hydrogen bond, covalent bond. ionic bond
-4 organic molecules: proteins, carbs, nucleic acids, lipids
-4 levels of protein structure: primary structure, secondary structure, Tertiary structure, Quaternary structure.
-ATP-made up of the nucleoside adenosine and three phosphate molecules
-DNA-stores information in a type of molecular code
-RNA-helps synthesize proteins
-meiosis-Meiosis helps in sexual reproduction and regulation of the number of chromosomes.
-mitosis-Mitosis helps in growth and in body repairs.
Unit 3: What role do cell processes play in the body's functions?
4 primary tissue types nerve, muscle, connective, epithelial
-Epithelial tissues are classified by the number of cell layers and shape. Simple is one layer of cells, stratified which is more than one cell layer and Pseudostratified which appears to be stratified , but all cells contact basement membrane so it is in fact simple. By shape there is squamous which is flat and scale like. Cuboidal that is about equal in height and width. Lastly there is columnar which is taller than wide.
-Exocrine glands have ducts to carry their secretions to specific locations
-Endocrine glands are glands of "internal secretion" whose secretions are usually secreted directly into the blood.
Glands:apocrine, merocrine and holocrine glands
basic steps of tissue repair: Regeneration is the replacement of destroyed tissue with same type of cells and fibrosis which is repair by dense (fibrous) connective tissue that forms a scar.
3 types of RNA: tRNA, mRNA, rRNA
How triplet codes, codons, and amino acids are related: The triplet code the normal version of the genetic code in which a sequence of three nucleotides codes for the synthesis of a specific amino acid. An Amino acid is any of a large number of compounds found in living cells that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and join together to form proteins. A codon consists of three close bases on a DNA molecule and that determines the position of a specific amino acid in a protein molecule during protein synthesis.
unit 4: What are the functions of the Integumentary and Skeletal Systems?
-The integumentary system is the skin and its derivatives (sweat and oil glands, hairs, and nails) which provide external protection for the body.
-Chemical, physical/mechanical and biological barriers are provided by the types of protection integumentary system
-The epidermis is the outermost portion of the skin and composed of epithelial tissue.
-The dermis is composed of fibrous connective tissue, is the bulk of the integumentary and is highly vascularized and innervated. Major portions of the hair follicles and oil and sweat glands are found in this layer.
Appendages of the skin: nails, hair follicles, hair, sweat glands, oil glands.
burns: first degree burn, second degree burn, third degree burn
-abcde rule:Asymmetry, birder, color, diameter, evolution
-The functions of the skeletal system are protection, support, hematopoiesis, mineral reservoir and movement.
-Hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage are the three different types of cartilage.
-cassification for bones:long, short, sesamoid, flat and irregular
bone markings: sites of attachment, projections, and depression/openings.
The 2 main processes of bone development:
BY: Taylor Pederson
Review of anatomy and physiology
unit 12: What is the role of the nervous system?
-Neurons- the structural and functional cells reacting to the physical and chemical changes in their environment.
-Neuroglial Cells- the supporting cells necessary for nourishing and maintaining the neurons, among other functions.
-Astrocytes- star-shaped cells located between neurons and blood vessels.
-Schwann Cells- The cell that wraps around a nerve fiber to form a protective myelin sheath.
-Neurofibrils- A fibril in the cytoplasm of a nerve cell, visible by light microscopy.
-2 main parts of the nervous system: The Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
-3 functions: Sensory Neurons receive information from the sensory receptors, interneurons transfor and interpret impulses, and motor neurons send appropriate impulses/instructions to the muscles and glands.
-synapse is the junction between 2 communicating neurons
-the reflex arc are the simplest nerve pathways
-the brain is divided into 3 sections:Cerebrum, medulla oblongata, cerebellum.
-cerebral cortex is the outermost portion of the cerebrum
-nerve: One or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys impulses of sensation or motion between the brain or spinal cord and other parts of the body.
unit 5: How does the Skeletal System relate to other body systems?
-The functions of the skeletal are protection, support, hematopoiesis, mineral reservoir and movement.
--206 bones in the body
-Axial- skeleton and Appendicular-skeleton are the two main divisions of the skeletal system
-calvice is most broken bone in the body
-3 parts of sternum: an elongated body, A broad, triangular manubrium, slender xiphoid process.
-The 26 vertebrae of the adult are distributed as: 7 cervical,12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx
-Sprain- the result of a wrench or twist of the ligaments of a joint
-Strain- a force pulling or stretching something to an extreme or damaging degree.
-Hinge- the convex and concave articulating bones allow movement along one plane, similar to a door. (Ex: elbow)
-Gliding- Have two flat bones joined. The sole movement of the bones is short gliding motions. (Ex: intertarsal joint)
-Ball and socket- one bone has a spherical head that articulates with a corresponding concavity. This joint frees the joint to move in many directions (Ex: hip and shoulder)
-Pivot joint- one round-shaped articulating bone fits within a corresponding depression on another bone. This joint allows one bone to rotate against the other (Ex: radioulnar joint)
-The three types of muscle are Smooth, cardiac and skeletal.
-Motor neurons are the nerve cells that connect to muscle fibers.
-Neurotransmitters are the chemicals called that stimulate the muscle to contract.
-chemicals are stored at the end of each motor neuron in the tiny vessels.
-the chemical that builds up in muscles caused by strenuous exercise is muscle fatigue
-ruptured blood vessels cause the discoloration and swelling in a muscle strain
-the immovable end of a muscle is origin
-the movable end of a muscle is insertion
unit 7: What is the function of the digestive system and how does the structure of each of its components aid in acquiring nutrients?
-Digestion is the chemical and mechanical breakdown of food into usable molecules.
-mechanical breakdown-Teeth begin digestion mechanically, Chewing (“mastication”) breaks apart food, 2 sets of teeth, and the teeth are, Incisors for cutting, Canines “fangs” for tearing, and Premolars and molars for grinding.
-How food moves through the digestive tract.Movement through the tube which is by wavelike motion called peristalsis.
-The three major classes of food are Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats.
-3 pairs of salivary glands: Parotid Glands, Submandibular Glands, and Sublingual Glands are the three pairs of salivary glands.
-The most digested food is absorbed in the small intestine.
unit 8: What is the function of the Circulatory System?
-major ABO groups: type A, type B, type AB, type O
-universal donor: O negative
-universal recipient: AB positive
-RH factor: an antigen occurring on the red blood cells of many humans (around 85 percent) and some other primates. It is particularly important as a cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn and of incompatibility in blood transfusions.
-components of blood: 45% is made up of RBC, WBC, platelets
-Average adult has 5 liters of blood
-IRon makes blood red
-Average RBC last 120 days
A cell of the lymphoid system that is active in the immune response
elevated monocytes indicate?
-Chronic inflammatory disease
unit 9:What is the structure and function of the heart?
-The purpose of the cardiovascular system is to transport oxygen to all of the tissues in the body and remove metabolic waste products from these tissues.
-The heart is located in the thorax cavity, below the nipple and is between rib 5 and 6.
-The heart is a fist sized, muscle, which has smooth and rounded sides and has an arch of blood on the top.
-A person’s heart is basically the size of their fist, so it varies from person to person.
-The three outer layers of the heart are the epicardium, myocardium and the endocardium.
-The four chambers of the heart are the left and right atria, the light and right ventricles, the interatrial septum and the interventricle spetum.
-Veins return blood to the heart.
-Arteries carry blood from the heart to the body.
-old lecture notes
unit 10: How does the Lymphatic System protect us from disease?
-thoracic duct receives lymph from the rest of the body
-tonsils are small masses lf lymphatic tissue that rings the pharynx in the throat.
-Active immunity responses are later immune responses which are much faster, more prolonged, and more effective
-vaccine contains dead or weakened viruses injected to initiate active immunity
-memory cells are T cells that remain behind after an infection to provide immunological memory.
- Anaphylactic shock: bodywide, acute, allergic response that is fairly rare is called
-autoimmune disorder or disease: when the body produces antibodies and sensitized T cells that attack and damage its own tissues
-interferons are small proteins that diffuse to nearby cells and bind to their membrane receptors
-complement refers to a group of 20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood at an inactive site that becomes active when it becomes attached to a foreign cell.
-lymph is excess tissue fluid that is picked up and returned to the blood stream by vessels.
-antibodies is/are also referred to as immunoglobulins or IGS and constitute the gamma globulin part of blood proteins and are formed in response to an antigen
unit 11: How does the Respiratory System deliver the Oxygen needed for the body?
-carbon dioxide is the waste product of cells
-organs of the lower respiratory tract: The lower trachea, brochi, brochioles, alveoli, and lungs
-organs of the upper respiratory tact:Nose, nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, and upper trachea
-nasal caity function: It cleans, moisturizes, and warms the air that enters through the nares as well as provides turbulence via the nasal conchae
-mucous: entraps dust and other small particles that enter with air and as cilia move, it push mucous with dust towards pharynx, where it is swallowed and digested by stomach
-larynx: guards the passage to the airways that lead to the lungs.
-tidal volume: The amount of air that enter or leaves lungs.
-inspiration: when air is breathed in through the mouth or nose
unit 13:What is the Importance of the Nervous System?
-2 major divisions of the nervous system: Central vs. Peripheral
-2 major divisions of the CNS:brain and spinal cord
-2 major divisions of the PNS: nerves connecting CNS to muscles and organs
-Lateralization means that certain functions are located (in a part or total) on one side of the brain
-4 lobes: Parietal Lobe, frontal lobe, Occipital Lobe, temporal lobe
-Corpus Callosum is the major pathway between sides, it connects comparable structures on each side, permits data received on one side to be processed in both hemispheres and aids motor coordination of left and right side.
-Conjunctiva covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the anterior surface of the eye, is a membrane which produces mucous that lubricates the eye and prevents dryness , protects the eye and localization of function.
-smell is is the least understood sense
unit 14: How Does the Endocrine System Influence Overall Health?
- hormones: A chemical release of one or more cells
-The pituitary controls the function of most all other endocrine glands making it the boss or master gland.
-we have 4 parathyroid glands
-pancreas secrets insulin; 3 types of cells in the pancreas:alpha, beta, and delta
- thymus is the vanishing gland
-Main function of the endocrine system is too secrete and maintain hormones
unit 15: Why is the Excretory System Vital to Sustaining Life?
-4 functions: filtration of the blood, reabsorption of vital nutrients, ions and water, secretion of excess materials & activation of vitamin D
-The role of the renal artery is to transport oxygenated blood from the heart and aorta to the kidney for filtration
-The nephrons function is to filter the blood and reabsorp and secrete materials.
-capsule:Encloses, supports and protects the kidney.
-cortex: Filtration, reabsorption and secrection
- the sit of filtration or blood is the Glomerulus
-dialysis therapy is a process that artificially removes metabolic waste from the blood in order to pay for kidney failure.
-the kidney is the most essential organ in this system for homeostasis
-organs of the excretory system: Lungs, skin, liver, kidneys, and bladder
unit 16: How do the Male and Female Reproduction Systems function in terms of hormones, organs, and processes?
*Penis- male sex organ used for sexual intercourse, which has 3 parts and many nerve endings
*Testes- oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum, men generally have two.
*Seminal vesicles- sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder and produce fructose to help produce energy to the sperm.
*Porstate gland- walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum and helps nourish sperm.
*Vagina- elastic, muscular tube and the female reproductive organ
*Ovary-produces the female reproductive cell
*Oviduct- passageway from the ovaries to the outside of the body
*Labia majora-The outer lips that protect the vagina
*Uterus- the cavity which holds the baby during pregnancy
-Ova are female gamete in the body at the time of birth while the sperm is produced by the male sexual organs. They both combine to complete fertilization.
-Gonadotropins are any of a group of hormones secreted by the pituitary that stimulate the activity of the gonads.
-After fertiization the embryo implants in the womb or the side of the uterus
-Males have XY chromosomes, females have X-chromosomes
*LH- controls the length and sequence of the female menstrual cycle, including ovulation, preparation of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg, and ovarian production of both estrogen and progesterone. In males, LH stimulates the testes to produce androgen.
*HSH- stimulates Sertoli cells to produce androgen-binding protein (ABP), thereby stimulating spermatogenesis and triggers ovulation
*Estrogen- positive feedback triggers the anterior pituitary to release more FSH and LH, more FSH and LH cause the ovary to produce more estrogen, the ensuing LH surge is responsible for ovulation.
*Progesterone- stimulate secretory and vascular activity of the endometrium, preparing for implantation of an embryo
*Testosterone- stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics produced mainly in the testes.
unit 17: How Can Anatomy be Used to Solve Crimes?
-testimonial evidence would be any witnessed accounts of an incident or crime.
-physical evidence refers to any material items that would be present on the crime scene or the victims. These items would be presented in a crime investigation to prove or disprove the facts of the issue.
-Trace Evidence refers physical evidence that is found at a crime scene in small but measurable amounts and can be anything from strands of hair or skin cells to tool marks and physical (fracture) matches. Trace evidence can be used to identify a victim or suspect or determine how a crime was committed.
-The value of trace (or contact) forensic evidence was first recognized by Edmund Locard in 1910. He was the director of the very first crime laboratory in existence, located in Lyon, France. The Locard’s Exchange Principle states that "with contact between two items, there will be an exchange”.
=loop- the ridges follow in one side, loop around, touch or pass through the imaginary line from the delta to the cor and exit the pattern on the same side from whee it entered. There is only one delta in the loop pattern and there are two different loop patterns the ulnar loop and the radial loop.
whorl- consists of a series of almost aligned circles. There are two deltas in the whirl pattern and there are four different whirl patterns the plain whirl, central pocket loop whirl, double loop whirl and the accidental whorl.
arch- Ridges flow in one side and flow out the opposite side. There are no deltas in the arch pattern and there are two types of arch patterns the plain arch and the tented arch.