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West Point Bridge Design
Transcript of West Point Bridge Design
There are four types of bridges and each have their own subtypes. These four types of bridges are the beam bridge, arch bridge, truss bridge, and suspension.
What is West Point Bridge Design Competition?
West Point Bridge Design is a competition to design a workable bridge for the least amount of money. People can design as many bridges as they want. The judges ask competitors to make a truss bridge, but arch, suspension, and beam bridges can be used. To design a bridge there is five main steps.
West Point Bridge Design - Building Cost-Effective Bridges
Design Process for an Actual and Virtual Bridge
Designing an actual bridge a person has to:
1. Research and check out the landscape where the bridge is being built
2. Choose what bridge type and that bridge type's subdivision
3. Plan out the materials and find the costs of each material
4. Revise your original design until it best fits the purpose
5. Present your idea and test if it works
Using West Point Bridge Designer only one step was left out, researching the land, because the information is already given with all the bridges on the same landscape.
1. Determine the type of bridge, and the subdivision
2. Find materials and calculate costs
3. Revise the bridge to fulfill its purpose
4. Test and present the bridge that was made
West Point Bridge Design Program
Beam Bridges are the oldest types of the bridges and the simplest. What classifies a bridge to be a beam bridge is that it has to keep the deck of the bridge straight by resisting the forces of tension and compression. Most beam bridges are used for railroads.
The arch bridge has been around for 3,000 years. Arch bridges have a more technical advantage. Instead of the force being pushed straight down like beam and truss bridges, it is brought to the side supports by the arch on the top or bottom of the bridge. There are three common designs of arch bridges: the deck arch, through truss, and tied arch bridge.
This is the most common type out of all the arch bridges. The key feature that makes a deck arch a deck arch is that the roadway or deck lays on top of the arch.
The deck of this bridge goes slightly below the top and through the middle of the arch. The deck of the bridge is suspended by cables.
A tied arch bridge, also known as a bowstring arch, has a deck underneath the arch. The main design feature of the tied arch is that it works exactly like a hunter's bow, where it uses compression to its advantage. This bridge has a tie at the end of each side to keep it stable.
Truss bridges are made by straight support beams connected by joints called trusses. They form triangles which are the strongest geometrical shape. This type of bridge is also what West Point Bridge Design is having people build. Some of these truss bridges are the Howe, Pratt, and K-Truss.
This bridge was invented by William Howe. It was designed so that the diagonal supports took care of compression and vertical supports for tension.
A Pratt Truss is the exact opposite of the Howe Truss. Instead of the verticals working against tension it works against compression and the diagonals work against tension.
The K-Truss combines the Howe Truss and Pratt Truss. This bridge divide the vertical members that are under compression into two. This is because a member has less likely chance of buckling under compression as it gets smaller.
Suspension bridges use heavy cables to suspend the road way. These bridges can span far longer than a truss bridge, but these bridges cost the most. There are two common types of suspension bridges: Suspended Deck and Cable-Stay suspension bridges.
Suspended Deck Bridge
This bridge has two anchorage points and a main cable, where all the other cables hang off of. This is a very common bridge. The Golden Gate bridge is an example.
The cable-stay bridge is very unique among the suspension bridges because it doesn't have a main cable. All the cables that hold tension come out of a main support coming from the deck of the bridge.
Terms All Bridge Designers Should Know
Abutments- structures in the
ground on either side of the crossing that support the horizontal and vertical loads of the bridge.
Gap- The distance between the abutments
Piers- a structure in between the abutments, that divides the span in two and helps support the span
Roadway- area marked for cars to use the bridge
Excavation- altering an area's natural landscape by the construction of a structure; example: a bridge
Span- length of bridge segments between its two supports
Steel Beams- an I-shape beam that can resist compression and tension
Steel Round Tubes- hollow tubes that deal with tension
Truss- large structures of triangulated steel members that carry loads over a span
Wing-Walls- walls on either side of abutments that resist erosion and hold the roadway
Types of Beams used in Bridges
This support beam is best for compression in the West Point Bridge Designer 2014.
This beam is literally a hollow tube. This beam works best for tension in the West Point Bridge Design.
The I-Beam provides the best support out of the other ones because it is shaped in a way where the top part resists compression and the bottom resists tension. Most current bridges use this beam.
Two Forces Affect All Bridges
The two forces that affect all bridges are tension and compression.
Tension occurs when a load's force is stretching at each end of a beam. If too much tension occurs than the support snaps and the bridge fails.
Compression is when a load's force pushes on a support of a bridge. When there is too much compression than the member buckles.
Deck Arch Designs
Most Expensive- $674,297
Deck truss Design
Arch Truss Design #10
Least Expensive- $174,711
Two Types of Failures for bridges