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Individual Approaches to Counseling & Psychotherapy
Transcript of Individual Approaches to Counseling & Psychotherapy
Couples and Family Counseling
Can vary dramatically by therapist theoretical orientation
Despite differences follow these basic assumptions:
The interactional forces in families are complex
Families have overt and covert rules that govern their functioning
Understanding the family hierarchy and the boundaries can help counselors understand the makeup and communication patterns in a family.
Boundaries can be rigid, semi-permeable, or diffuse.
Stress & developmental milestones
Individual Approaches to Counseling & Psychotherapy
By: Vincent Campanile
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development
Erikson started out studying Freud's theory, but felt that the influences of instincts and the unconscious did not have that great of an influence on humans.
Instead placed more influence on social factors.
Suggested that we pass through 8 stages of life and we are capable of change at any stage in our life.
A more positive approach.
The primary motivator for humans is the need to be in relationships.
As we take in these relationships, we begin to build a self.
Object-Relations therapists use the word "object" to describe external objects and internal representations of objects to which we become attached to early in life.
Here therapy is more long-term and the therapist almost becomes the healthy parent the client never had.
Created by Heinz Kohut, he focused more on the self rather than the importance of drives.
To grow into healthy adults Kohut believed that we need to meet three basic needs : to feel special, to believe that parents are strong and capable, and to belong.
There is no such thing as a perfect parent, but there is good-enough parenting and poor parenting.
A therapist's empathy has the ability to come close to deeply understanding the client.
The Relational and Intersubjectivity Perspective
Each individual has internalized images of early relationships in our lives, such as parents. This impacts how we relate to others and the decisions we make in life.
The self is formed in relationships and will change through different relationships.
Therapists will have a deep and personal encounter with the client through dialogue.
This process can be hopeful, painful and empowering because old experiences will be brought up as the client learns to transcend them.
Created by Arnold Lazaruz, his approach is based on a careful analysis of the client to find his or her's needs in therapy.
The client will respond to questions that fit under the BASIC ID.
BASIC ID stands for behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationships, and drugs/biology.
After this, treatment strategies and goals can be developed for each individual.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Was developed by Marsha Linehan to use with clients who have difficult problems or disorders.
Believes that some people are born with heightened sensitivity.
These clients may be on an emotional roller coaster for they are constantly looking for validation.
The therapist will show acceptance towards the client while still encouraging the client to change.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: ACT
ACT uses a mixture of cognitive techniques, behavioral techniques and Eastern philosophy.
The therapist will help the client become aware of his or her symptoms and encourage the client to accept them.
ACT in three steps: Accept thoughts and feelings, choose directions, and take action.
The goal is to have the client create a rich and meaningful life, while still accepting the pain that goes with it.
Developed by Michael Mahoney, the goal is to assist the client into understanding his or her own unique ways and making sense out of the world.
Mahoney still follows a few of the traditional cognitive therapy concepts such as "We are our thoughts."
The therapist tries to understand the client's past and present relationships by having the client share his or her meaning-making system.
Models of Couples and Family Therapy
Improved Individuation and Autonomy
Approaches Loosely Based on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Existential-Humanistic Therapy, And/Or Post-Modern Therapy
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy
Originally developed to treat clients struggling with traumatic events.
Designed to have the client focus on either their rapid eye movements or other types of rhythmic stimulation while imagining the troubling event to eventually lessen the negative symptoms associated with the event.
There are eight stages for treatment.
Rooted in person-centered therapy, but also incorporates aspects of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Maintains that everyone can become motivated under the right circumstances. Asserting that is it crucial for helpers to be: Collaborative, evocative, and honoring.
Motivation is key to change.
Recognizes the impact of gender, the oppression of women, and the influence of politics on women’s issues.
Feminist therapists recognize the amount of inherent power/influence this relationship, and seeks to refine therapeutic alliances to collaborate in a more effective manner.
12 steps to consider that take into account critical components of feminist therapy.
Men often have a more pessimistic/negative attitude towards the counseling process.
Noted that men often feel more comfortable with feelings of anger, aggression, competitiveness and less comfortable with feelings of intimacy or self-disclosure.
Counselors need to be aware of mens issues and should show empathy for a man's situation.
Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Approaches
Includes products, systems, or practices that are used in conjunction with conventional methods to treat mental health issues.
Holistic approach- focus on the whole person, particularly a person’s “wellness”.
Looks at the different levels of self.
Example of therapy: Mind-body medicine- (yoga, meditation)
Human Validation Process Model
Unhealthy Universal Communication Patterns
View of Human Nature
• General Systems Theory
• Boundaries and Information Flow
• Rules and Hierarchy
• Communication Theory
• Scapegoating & Identified Patients
• Developmental Issues
• Social Constructionism
Multigenerational Family Therapy
How behavioral patterns and personality traits have been passed down from generation to generation
Therapists Associated with theory:
and Murray Bowen
Differentiation of Self
Self from others
Emotional and intellectual processes
Nature of Therapy
Family Dynamics and systems theory
Worked mainly with couples
Emotions to a minimum by having clients talk through the therapist
Help members see themselves as they truly are
Narrative Family Therapy
Therapists associated with theory:
Michael White and David Epston
The narratives (stories) families tell that reflect their identities
To deconstruct narratives in order to create new realities
Nature of therapy
Optimistic, proactive, future-oriented
Family decides what defines a healthy way of living and relating
Social, cultural, and Spiritual Issues
Gender, culture, ethnicity
Social, political, historical
Rasicm, poverty, lower-class status
Less likely to attend counseling