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Dyslexia

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by

Rachel Chang

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of Dyslexia

Dyslexia

Types of Dyslexia
Phonological Dyslexia
Surface Dyslexia
Deep Dyslexia
Phonological Dyslexia
Surface
Dyslexia
Signs & Symptoms
when reading out loud, mistakes are made when the rules of English are inconsistent
Good grasp of phonetic concepts but great difficulty with whole word recognition
Spelling errors are usually phonologically correct
Homophone confusions e.g. see, sea
They can read non-words with ease
Causes
Deep Dyslexia
Other Signs & Symptoms
Causes..
Case Study

Castle
Potra
Subtle
Semester
Broad
Steak
Developmental
Listen
Lucky
Phonemes
Diaries
Role Play
Are you a phonological dyslexic?
Video
Developmental:
C.D.
Dyslexia difficulties suspected around 7 yrs old.
Normal speech production and comprehension
Severe difficulties in dealing with printed language
Reading aloud significantly worse for irregular words
Understands a word in terms of the way she would read it aloud, not the way it is spelled
normal intelligence and normal ability to deal with spoken language
Case Study
Acquired:
A.B.

Motorcycle accident-> suffered a compound comminuted depressed fracture of the right frontal area of skull
Reading aloud significantly worse for irregular words
Homophone confusions: e.g. 'soul'---> shoe
'route'---> what holds the apple tree in the ground and makes it grow.
Frequent phonologically correct misspellings
Definition..
Dyslexia Australia's Definition
..a disorder involving
difficulty in learning to
read words and letters....
trouble with words.
Bluck
Snarp
Any Questions?
Deep dyslexia is an acquired reading disorder where the substitution of semantically similar words occur in single word oral reading.
Morphological and visual errors can also occur
What is deep dyslexia?
So what does that mean?
Semantic errors: HUGE  “big” or CHAIR  “table”.
Visual errors: SLEEVE  “sleep”
Morphological errors: PAINT  “painting”

Semantic, visual, morphological errors
Extreme difficulty and impairment in nonword reading
Impaired writing
Hard to read abstract nouns than concrete nouns. e.g. reading “love” or “justice” is harder than reading “book” or “apple”.

The exact causes is unknown
Occurs after a brain injury, lesion or ischemic/ hemorrhage stroke
Occurs in people who are literate and have already learned the ability to read.
This form of dyslexia is VERY RARE.


Very controversial topic!
The reasons for many theories and models developed:
Limited evidence
Varying characteristics and symptoms in patients with deep dyslexia
Little understanding of what underlying principles responsible for the models

Explaining Deep Dyslexia
There have been two hypothesis created in an attempt to explain deep dyslexia.

Within the 3-route model of reading aloud, also known as the Left hemisphere hypothesis (Morton & Patterson, 1980)

Right hemisphere hypothesis (Coltheart,1980)

Models
3-route model of reading aloud
Hypothesis: reading aloud in deep dyslexia involves use of right-hemisphere reading mechanisms
The three pathways involved when reading aloud with deep dyslexia
If any stage is impaired, then the right hemisphere reading mechanism is needed for reading aloud to be possible.
Therefore, to support this hypothesis, at least one pathway must rely on the right hemisphere
Right-Hemisphere Hypothesis
Indirect Pathway
Direct Pathway
A
B
ROOM
Room
HIPPOPOTAMUS
Hippopotamus
Flower
Flower
SHNORK
Shnork
NUGLIOSORSAKIS
Nugliosorsakis
THING
TH
I
NG
BEM
5 minutes later....
Bem
CHACK
Half an hour later.....
Chack
B E M

(CH) A (CK)
Have you ever had a serious brain injury, and what part of your brain was damaged?
Image of brain
A Diagnosis!!!*
*Disclaimer
The End
Cassandra, Jessica, Anwyn, Amy, Rachel
Indirect Pathway
Non-Lexical Pathway
Indirect Pathway
Non-Lexical Pathway
Indirect Pathway
Non-Lexical Pathway
Indirect Pathway
Direct Pathway
Non-Lexical Pathway
"a green vegetable"

bean/been
Can be acquired or developmental
Over reliance on the direct pathway
Must phonemically sound out all words
Loss of semantic system in some cases
Homophone selection task to determine where the impairment is
Full transcript