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John Dewey Partner Philosophy Share
Transcript of John Dewey Partner Philosophy Share
THINKING THINKING "Skill obtained apart from thinking
is not connected with any sense of the purposes for which it is to be used."
"It consequently leaves a man at the mercy of his routine habits and of the authoritative control of others." WHAT IS
? 12. Thinking in Education THINKING Thinking is the method of intelligent learning, of learning that employs and rewards behavior. Experience Experience is key to learning.
It is trying to do something and having the thing perceptibly do something to one in return.
"Trial and error" "The first approach to any subject in school, if thought to be aroused and not words acquired, should be as unscholastic as possible."
"The situation should be of such a nature as to arouse thinking means of course that it should suggest something to do which is not either routine or capricious...connected with existing habits" - Thinking which has no
influence on increasing
efficiency in action and
in learning more about
ourselves and the world
is a major problem. "Hands on Learning" 18. Educational Values Intrinsic values
Instrumental Values For example: 26. Theories of Morals Intelligence and Character "Moral Education is practically
hopeless when we set up the
development of character as a
supreme end." - Reduced to
"lessons about morals" "It has no more influence on character than information about the mountains of Asia" I. Traditional vs. Progressive Education The student interested in arithmetic Learns the value of arithmetic, not through lecture
Discovers success depends upon ability to use numbers
Something appealing to the student is of intrinsic value to them Intrinsic Values Cannot be compared
No substitute Instrumental Values Something preferable over another
"Better or worse"
Establishes an order Topics presented in a way that show immediate value
Require no justification
Perceived to be a means of achieving something of intrinsic value -Direct instruction in morals has been effective only in social groups where it was a part of the authoritative control. -Not the teaching as such but
the reinforcement of it by the whole regime of which it was an incident made it effective Open-mindedness, single-mindedness, sincerity, breadth of outlook, thoroughness, assumption of responsibility for developing the consequences of ideas which are accepted, are moral traits. Traditional Theory "Education is a process of overcoming natural inclinations and substituting in its place habits acquired under external pressure." Progressive Education Transmitting information of the past to the next generation
"Pattern of Organization" "New education emphasizes the freedom of the learner." Traditional Progressive External discipline
Learning from texts
Preparation for the
future Free activity
Learning from experience
Making the most of the opportunities of present life Social Control " I take it that no one would deny that the ordinary good citizen is as a matter of fact subject to a great deal of social control and that a considerable part of this control is not felt to involve restriction of personal freedom." - Children at recess or after school play games, from tag and baseball to football.
- The games involve rules, and these rules order their conduct.
- Without rules there is no game. Those playing the game have seen, perhaps, professional matches and they want to emulate their elders. - In all such cases it is not the will or desire of any one person which establishes order but the moving spirit of the whole group.
- The control is social, but individuals are part of a community, not outside of it 3. Criteria of Experience Forming a Theory of Experience When Education is conducted upon the basis of learning Every experience takes upon it something from the past, and modifies it to the future Growth through experiences; "growing"
Not only physically but intellectually and morally
Must also include the direction in which growing takes place
Example: Career of the burglar "Every experience influences the conditions of which further experiences are had." Experience Shaping Decide the quality of future experiences Creates preferences and aversions Affects attitudes for better or worse Practical Implementation to the Classroom Educators must be able to judge what attitudes & tendencies are conducive to a students growth and experience Traditional education placed little demand on this ideal, making progressive education more difficult on the educator A primary responsibilty of the teacher today is recognize what "surroundings" are conducive to having "experiences that lead to growth". Traditional Education Paid little attention to the internal factors which can decide experiences School environment
desks, blackboard, small school yard No demand on becoming acquainted with the community
Physical, historical, economic, etc.
Utilizing them as educational resources "We always live at the time we live, and not at some other time." "Only by extracting at each present time the full meaning of each present experience, are we prepared for doing the same thing in the future." Education should be an ever-present process.
Attention to the meaning of each experience What this means to us: The Means and Goal of Education - Conservatives as well as radicals in education are profoundly discontented with the present educational situation taken as a whole. The road of the new education is not an easier one to follow than the old road but a more strenuous and difficult one. The fundamental issue is not of a new versus old education nor of a progressive against traditional but a question of what anything whatever must be worthy of the name education. What we want and need is education pure and simple, and we shall make surer and faster progress when we devote ourselves to finding out just what education is and what conditions have to be satisfied in order that education may be a reality and not a name or a slogan. How can we apply this to the classroom? References Cahn, S. M. (1996). Classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of education. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.
http://youtu.be/phZiXma6kHU/ Basing education upon personal experience Don't limit the intellectual and moral development of the student