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Untitled Prezi

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wes uszacki

on 20 February 2013

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Questions How would a drug that interferes with cross-bridge formation affect muscle contraction?
What would you expect to happen to a resting skeletal muscle if the sarcolemma suddenly became very permeable to calcium ions?
Predict what would happen to a muscle if the motor end plate did not contain acetylcholinesterase. Resting sarcomere
ADP + P attached to myosin head (stored energy)
Step 1
Ca+ binds to troponin exposing active site on actin
Step 2
Myosin head attaches to actin
Step 3
Pulling of crossbridge towards center of sarcomere
ADP + P released (energy used)
Step 4
Myosin head binds another ATP
Detachment of cross bridge
Step 5
ATP ADP + P, reactivation of myosin head The Contraction Cycle Action potential travels to axon of motor neuron
Ach is released into synaptic cleft
Ach diffuses across synaptic cleft & binds to Ach receptors on sarcolemma
This changes permeability to sodium
Sudden rush of sodium into sarcolemma
Causes action potential sarcolemma
Action potential spreads over entire sarcolemma, down t-tubules to cisternae
Cisternae release massive amounts of calcium
Increase in calcium – sarcomeres contract
Ach broken down by AchE Link between NS and muscle
Motor neuron – control skeletal muscle fibers
Synaptic terminal
Acetylcholine (Ach) – chemical released by neuron to communicate with other cells
Triggers change in sarcolemma which triggers contraction Neuromuscular Junction Under control of the nervous system Control of Muscle Fiber Contraction How would severing the tendon attached to a muscle affect the ability of the muscle to move a body part?
Why does skeletal muscle appear striated when viewed through a microscope?
Where would you expect the greatest concentration of calcium ions in resting skeletal muscles to be? Questions Thin
twisted actin molecules
Each has an active site where they interact with myosin
Resting – active site covered by tropomyosin which is held in place by troponin

Head attaches to actin during contraction
Can only happen if troponin changes position, moving tropomyosin to expose active site Thick and Thin Filaments Smallest functional unit of muscle fiber
Each myofibril contains 10,000 sarcomeres end to end
Interaction between thick and thin filaments cause contraction
Banded appearance Sarcomere Specialized form of SER
Tubular network around each myofibril

In contact with T-Tubule

Cisternae – expanded chambers of SR, store Calcium Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Cylinder as long as entire muscle fiber
Each fiber contains 100s to 1000s
Responsible for contraction
When myofibrils contract the whole cell contracts
Consist of proteins
Actin – thin filaments
Myosin – thick filaments Myofibrils Network of narrow tubules
filled with extracellular fluid
form passageways through muscle fiber Cell membrane
pores open to T-tubules Very large cells
100’s of nuclei Microanatomy – Sarcolemma and T-Tubules Muscle contractions require energy
Blood vessels deliver oxygen and nutrients to produce ATP

Muscle contractions are under stimulation from the CNS
Voluntary control
Axons connect to individual muscle fibers B. Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle – Blood Vessels and Nerves Produce movement
Muscle pulls tendons to move the skeleton
Maintain posture and body position
Continuous muscle contraction
Support soft tissue
Support weight of visceral organs
Guard entrances and exits
Encircle openings to digestive and urinary tracts. Control swallowing, defecation and urination
Maintain body temperature
Energy from contraction is converted to heat A. Function of Skeletal Muscles Sarcomere contraction – Sliding Filament Theory
Thin filaments slide toward center of sarcomere
Thick filaments are stationary
Myosin head attaches to active site on actin (cross bridge)
Pull actin towards center, then detaches Sliding Filaments and Cross Bridges All three layers attach muscle to bone Surrounds each muscle fiber, and tie adjacent fibers together Bundle of muscle fibers Divides muscle into compartments, each contain a bundle of muscle fibers called fascicle Surrounds muscle B. Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles - Gross Anatomy What do skeletal muscles do?

How do muscles work? The Muscular System
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