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Transcript of English Morphology
MorphologyMorphemeFree morphemeBound morphemeBase/stemRootAffixes--prefixes, suffixes, and infixesInflectionDerivationContent morphemeFunction morphemeSimple wordComplex wordCompound word
Regular and Irregular Inflectional Morphology
English Derivational Morphology
Word Formation Processes
AffixationCompoundingZero derivationStress shiftClippingAcronym formationBlendingAdoption of brand names as common wordsOnomatopoeiaBorrowingBackformation
Some Elements ofEnglish MorphologyDr. Ryan Naughton
Word class Inflectional category Regular affix Nouns Number -s, -es: book/books, bush/bushes Possessive -’s, -’: the cat’s tail, Charles’ toeVerbs 3rd person singular present -s, -es: it rains, Karen writes past tense -ed: paint/painted perfect aspect -ed: paint/painted (past participle) has painted progressive or continuous -ing: fall/falling, aspect (present participle) write/writingAdjectives comparative (comparing -er: tall/taller two aspects) superlative (comparing +2 -est: tall/tallest items)
Type of irregularity Noun plurals Verbs: past tense Verbs: past participleUnusual suffix oxen, syllabi, taken, seen, fallen, antennae eatenChange of stem foot/feet, run/ran, come/came, sing/sung,vowel mouse/mice flee/fled, meet/met, swim/swum fly/flew, stick/stuck,get/got, break/brokeChange of stem vowel brother feel/felt, kneel/knelt write/written, do/donewith unusual suffix brethren break/broken, fly/flownChange in base/stem form send/sent, bend/bent, send/sent, bend/bent(sometimes with unusual suffix) think/thought, think/thought, teach/taught, buy/bought teach/taught, buy/boughtZero-marking (no suffix deer, sheep, fish hit, beat hit, beat, comeor stem change) moose
Affix Word Class(es) Nature of change in meaning ExamplesPrefix ‘non-’ Noun, adjective Negation/opposite Noun: non-starter Adj.: non-partisanSuffix ‘-ity’ Adjective Changes to noun electric/electricity obese/obesityPrefix ‘un-’ Verb Reverses action tie/untie, fasten/unfasten Adjective Opposite quality clear/unclear, safe/unsafeSuffix ‘-ous’ Noun Changes to adjective fame/famous, glamour/glamorousPrefix ‘re-’ Verb Repeat action tie/retie, write/rewriteSuffix ‘-able’ Verb Changes to adjective; means print/printable, ‘can undergo action of verb’ drink/drinkable