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Dibels vs. DRA's
Transcript of Dibels vs. DRA's
of Basic Early Literacy Skills
Set of assessments used to gain knowledge of early literacy skills from k-6th grade
Short one minute assessments
Designed to identify children having difficulty with basic literacy skills
Prevent later reading difficulties
First sound fluency, letter naming fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency
Developmental Reading Asssessment
How we use DIBELS data
Progress monitoring for at risk reading difficulty
Instructional decision making process
Benchmarks help determine students at risk for later reading difficulties
How are DIBELs and DRA reading measurements beneficial to our classrooms and how do we interpret the data for purposeful implementation?
DIBELs vs. DRA's
How to administer DIBELS:
administered at least three times a year
conducted one-on-one and usually within a five to ten minute time frame
broken down into different categories based on grade level
Initial Sound Fluency
(Preschool through middle of Kindergarten) Students are presented four different pictures. Students are given a letter and they must choose which picture starts with that letter sound. Students must also say the sound of the given letter.
Letter Naming Fluency (
Kindergarten through beginning of first grade) Students are given a sheet of paper with upper case and lower case letters in random order. Students have one minute to name as many letters as possible.
Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
(middle of Kindergarten to end of first grade) Students are presented words with three or four phonemes. The student must pronounce the given word using the phoneme segmentation. The student has one minute to state as many phoneme segmentations as possible.
Nonsense Word Fluency
(middle of Kindergarten through middle of second grade) Students are presented letters which must be blended into words that most commonly represent their sound. Students are given one minute to read as many nonsense words as possible.
Oral Reading Fluency
(middle of first grade to end of third grade) Students are given a reading passage for their corresponding grade level. Students have one minute to read the passage aloud. The number of correct words per minute is the students’ oral reading fluency rate.
Word Use Fluency
(Kindergarten through third grade) Students are given several words and must use them correctly in a sentence. Students have one minute to state as many correct sentences as possible.
Students are less at risk because their needed skills are targeted for achievement
How we use DRA data:
The Benefits of DIBELS:
The Benefits of DRA's
Identifies levels for students to independently select their choice books
DIBELs can identify children who may need extra help to become good readers and check up on those children while they receive the extra help to make sure they are making progress. Also uses fall, winter, and spring screening data to see growth.
Allows for parents to identify students' reading difficulties, so they can help their child be better readers at home
Uses fall, winter, and spring screening data for easy and useful progress monitoring
DIBELs also may be used by your school to make decisions about how well the school's overall reading program is working for all children
DRAs determine each students' independent (or instructional) level with an evaluation of three components: engagement, fluency and comprehension. This allows for direct instructional needs.
Teacher notifies the parents of their child's reading level, which then allows the parents to search for books at a particular level.
Shows progress of students literacy based on engagement, oral reading, and comprehension. It is scored on a rubric, which is easily determined to identify growth of students.
Can be used as evidence to see if DRAs are effective for literacy growth in their district
How to administer DRA's:
Good R., Kaminski R. (n.d) What are Dibels? Dynamic Measurement Group. Retrieved from
Blair,D. (2013, January 2). 1st Grade-DRA 12-Jean Kirshner. Retrieved from https://
[Grade 2 With Mrs. U.]. (2011, May 2). DIBELS NEXT: Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF.
Retrieved from https://wwww.youtube.com/watch?v=oLlQVEqRz_U
Good, R. H., & Kaminski, R. A. (2003, July 2). Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills:
Administration and Scoring Guide. UO DIBELS Data System, 6th Edition, 1-68. Retrieved from https://dibels.uoregon.edu/docs/materials/admin_and_scoring_6th_ed.pdf.
Brummitt-Yale, J. (February 2013). Effective Strategies for Teaching Phonemic Awareness.
Retrieved from http://www.k12reader.com/effective-strategies-for-teaching-phonemic-awareness/.
Beaver, Joetta (2001). Developmental Reading Assessment: Teacher Resource Guide. Ohio:
Clapping or tapping
- When reading a word, clap out each letter sound or syllable.
- Show a picture of a word, say the word, and clap or tap the word. Visualizing, hearing, and feeling the word will increase students’ phonics skills.
- Manipulating magnetic letters to recognize sounds, letter names, and creating words. Card games, board games, and computer games can be used to engage students. Blends, digraphs, and word families can be used to help students understand how letters and letter sounds work together.
The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) is a standardized reading test used to determine a student’s instructional level in reading.
The DRA is administered to all students in Gr. 1-3 during a testing window in September and again in May. It may be administered at other times during the school year, especially at mid-year, so that teachers can track student progress.
The DRA is administered individually to students by teachers and/or reading specialists. Students read a selection (or selections) and then retell what they have read to the examiner. As the levels increase, so does the difficulty level for each selection.
Expose students to various types of texts
- This allows for student familiarity when they are selected the readings
In order to maintain the validity of DRA, the assessment should NOT be administered to an individual student more than 3 times a year: September, January, and May.
All students must be tested for their instructional level by their classroom teacher in the fall with the
DRA or running record (cold read) by classroom teachers
- a writing component allows for students to display further proficiency in reading comprehension.
-In the beginning of the year, when introducing DRA to students, let them know what you will be looking for (expression, fluency, summary, etc.). This should be done prior to assessing students, not right before the assessment.
Labeled Book Bins-
Students should be aware of their DRA reading levels. In the classroom library you can have book bins with level labels on each bin. Students will be able to pick appropriate books for independent reading time. Student also have the opportunity to challenge them selves with higher leveled books. Phone apps like “book retriever” can scan books and level the entire
Observe, evaluate and record change in students' reading performance.
Plan for and teach what each student needs to learn next.
Identify at risk students
Enable students to pick appropriate texts for independent reading
Inform parents of their child’s reading progress
Beaver, J. M. (n.d.). DRA2 Teacher Guide
Developmental Reading Assessment. . Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.pearsonschool.com