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Air Conditioning for Aircraft

ACM
by

lori brown

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of Air Conditioning for Aircraft

Thank you for your attention!
Subject 1
Ram Air Inlet
Ram air used in heat exchangers

When no ram air is present, such as while parked or taxiing, a fan is used to move air over the heat exchangers to cool the bleed air
Air Cycle Machine
Old technology
Your great grandparents might have had one around the house







Used to preserve food in the early 1900s
Typical Air Conditioner
Primary Medium: Freon
Condensation
Evaporation
Air Cycle Machine
Primary Medium: Air
No condensation
No evaporation
Low Maintenance
Air Cycle Machine
Joule-Brayton Cycle
Air as the refrigerant
Not used in homes or automobiles
Used in some industrial applications
Used in aircraft
Inside the Smiths ACM
Negative Pressure Relief Valve
Occasionally upon landing, cabin pressure exceeds ambient air pressure.

In this case it may be required to activate the negative pressure relief valve.
Pressure Differential
If cabin pressure altitude is held constant and the aircraft altitude increases, the pressure differential increases.
At FL370, with CPA of 8,000ft, pressure differential = 8.65 PSI
If the max pressure differential is exceed for the particular aircraft, fuselage can essentially pop like a balloon
Altitude Barrier
When designing a high altitude aircraft, it becomes apparent that in order keep the cabin pressure altitude at or below 8000’, the pressure differential must increase.

The problem is that this requires a fuselage that can withstand the high pressure differential. Materials at this point become either expensive or heavy.
Additional Information
Project 2 – Draw ACM Schematic
Air Conditioning in Aircraft
A Bit of History
The ancient Romans were known to circulate aquaduct water through certain homes for cooling.

In 1842, Dr. John Gorrie, a Physician, invented an ice making machine using a compressor. He eventually got a patent for the rickety machine, but funds were scarce and the idea never caught on. He died a poor man in 1855.

Finally in 1902, the first modern electrical air conditioning was invented by Willis Haviland Carrier.
Basic Thermodynamics
First Law: Energy can be changed from one form to another, but cannot be created nor destroyed (Law of conservation)

Second Law: Heat will not pass from a cold to a hot body (Law of entropy)
Natural tendency to even out
Typical Refrigeration Cycle
How Does it Work?
Starts with Hot Engine Bleed Air

Taken from the 10th and 14th stages of the compressor (can exceed 150°C)


Air passes through the primary heat exchanger and is cooled


Air enters a centrifugal compressor (result = increase in temp and pressure)
Air enters the secondary heat exchanger and is further cooled
Now the cool, pressurized air enters the expansion turbine
Pressure drops
Temperature drops
Turbine is rotated
Air goes through water separator and then into the cabin
Cooling the aircraft
Most important on the ground and at relatively low altitudes (high OAT)
A ground source can be used
Enters the mixing manifold and then the cabin
Air conditioning packs
Contain Air Cycle Machines
Packs (Boeing 737)
Left pack uses engine 1 bleed air

Right pack uses engine 2 bleed air

Conditioned cockpit air comes from the left pack

Conditioned air is mixed from both packs to use in the passenger cabin
Schematic of a 737 system
Pressurization
Jet and Turboprop Aircraft can fly very high
Pressurization becomes a necessity for:
Comfort
Safety
Prevention of hypoxia
Prevention of death
Environmental Control System
Small piston aircraft can bleed air from the turbocharger for pressurization
Large Aircraft are most commonly pressurized by bleed air
-pressure level maintained by the outflow valve
Cabin Pressure Altitude
Relative altitude inside aircraft cabin
Measured in feet
FAA states that it cannot exceed 8,000ft
Cabin Pressure Altitude
Decompression
Subtle Decompression
Dangerous because it may go undetected

Rapid Decompression
Dangerous because there is not much time to react before hypoxia strikes
Questions?
Air Cycle Machine Diagram
Air Cycle Machine
Old technology
Your great grandparents might have had one around the house







Used to preserve food in the early 1900s
Typical Air Conditioner
Primary Medium: Freon
Condensation
Evaporation
Air Cycle Machine
Primary Medium: Air
No condensation
No evaporation
Low Maintenance
Ram Air Inlet
Ram air used in heat exchangers

When no ram air is present, such as while parked or taxiing, a fan is used to move air over the heat exchangers to cool the bleed air
Air Cycle Machine
Joule-Brayton Cycle
Air as the refrigerant
Not used in homes or automobiles
Used in some industrial applications
Used in aircraft
Air enters the secondary heat exchanger and is further cooled
Now the cool, pressurized air enters the expansion turbine
Pressure drops
Temperature drops
Turbine is rotated
Air goes through water separator and then into the cabin
Pressurization
Jet and Turboprop Aircraft can fly very high
Pressurization becomes a necessity for:
Comfort
Safety
Prevention of hypoxia
Prevention of death
Pressure Differential
If cabin pressure altitude is held constant and the aircraft altitude increases, the pressure differential increases.
At FL370, with CPA of 8,000ft, pressure differential = 8.65 PSI
If the max pressure differential is exceed for the particular aircraft, fuselage can essentially pop like a balloon
Decompression
Subtle Decompression
Dangerous because it may go undetected

Rapid Decompression
Dangerous because there is not much time to react before hypoxia strikes
Air Conditioning in Aircraft
A Bit of History
The ancient Romans were known to circulate aquaduct water through certain homes for cooling.

In 1842, Dr. John Gorrie, a Physician, invented an ice making machine using a compressor. He eventually got a patent for the rickety machine, but funds were scarce and the idea never caught on. He died a poor man in 1855.

Finally in 1902, the first modern electrical air conditioning was invented by Willis Haviland Carrier.
Basic Thermodynamics
First Law: Energy can be changed from one form to another, but cannot be created nor destroyed (Law of conservation)

Second Law: Heat will not pass from a cold to a hot body (Law of entropy)
Natural tendency to even out
Typical Refrigeration Cycle
How Does it Work?
Starts with Hot Engine Bleed Air

Taken from the 10th and 14th stages of the compressor (can exceed 150°C)


Air passes through the primary heat exchanger and is cooled


Air enters a centrifugal compressor (result = increase in temp and pressure)
Cooling the aircraft
Most important on the ground and at relatively low altitudes (high OAT)
A ground source can be used
Enters the mixing manifold and then the cabin
Air conditioning packs
Contain Air Cycle Machines
Packs (Boeing 737)
Left pack uses engine 1 bleed air

Right pack uses engine 2 bleed air

Conditioned cockpit air comes from the left pack

Conditioned air is mixed from both packs to use in the passenger cabin
Schematic of a 737 system
Inside the Smiths ACM
Environmental Control System
Small piston aircraft can bleed air from the turbocharger for pressurization
Large Aircraft are most commonly pressurized by bleed air
-pressure level maintained by the outflow valve
Cabin Pressure Altitude
Relative altitude inside aircraft cabin
Measured in feet
FAA states that it cannot exceed 8,000ft
Cabin Pressure Altitude
Negative Pressure Relief Valve
Occasionally upon landing, cabin pressure exceeds ambient air pressure.

In this case it may be required to activate the negative pressure relief valve.
Altitude Barrier
When designing a high altitude aircraft, it becomes apparent that in order keep the cabin pressure altitude at or below 8000’, the pressure differential must increase.

The problem is that this requires a fuselage that can withstand the high pressure differential. Materials at this point become either expensive or heavy.
Questions?
Additional Information
Project 1 – Draw ACM Schematic
Air Cycle Machine Diagram
A Bit of History
The ancient Romans were known to circulate aquaduct water through certain homes for cooling.

In 1842, Dr. John Gorrie, a Physician, invented an ice making machine using a compressor. He eventually got a patent for the rickety machine, but funds were scarce and the idea never caught on. He died a poor man in 1855.

Finally in 1902, the first modern electrical air conditioning was invented by Willis Haviland Carrier.
Typical Refrigeration Cycle
Air Cycle Machine
Air Cycle Machine
Old technology
Your great grandparents might have had one around the house







Used to preserve food in the early 1900s
Air Cycle Machine
Old technology
Your great grandparents might have had one around the house







Used to preserve food in the early 1900s
Typical Air Conditioner
Primary Medium: Freon
Condensation
Evaporation
Air Cycle Machine
Primary Medium: Air
No condensation
No evaporation
Low Maintenance
How Does it Work?
Starts with Hot Engine Bleed Air

Taken from the 10th and 14th stages of the compressor (can exceed 150°C)

Air passes through the primary heat exchanger and is cooled


Air enters a centrifugal compressor (result = increase in temp and pressure)
Air Enters Secondary Heat Exchanger
Flows across expansion Turbine
Continues to Water Seperator and Mixing Chamber
How Does it Work?
Starts with Hot Engine Bleed Air

Taken from the 10th and 14th stages of the compressor (can exceed 150°C)


Air passes through the primary heat exchanger and is cooled


Air enters a centrifugal compressor (result = increase in temp and pressure)
Air enters the secondary heat exchanger and is further cooled
Now the cool, pressurized air enters the expansion turbine
Pressure drops
Temperature drops
Turbine is rotated
Air goes through water separator and then into the cabin
Typical Air Conditioner
Primary Medium: Freon
Condensation
Evaporation
Air Cycle Machine
Primary Medium: Air
No condensation
No evaporation
Low Maintenance
Pressure Differential
If cabin pressure altitude is held constant and the aircraft altitude increases, the pressure differential increases.
At FL370, with CPA of 8,000ft, pressure differential = 8.65 PSI
If the max pressure differential is exceed for the particular aircraft, fuselage can essentially pop like a balloon
Air Cycle Machine
Joule-Brayton Cycle
Air as the refrigerant
Not used in homes or automobiles
Used in some industrial applications
Used in aircraft
Air Cycle Machine
Old technology
Your great grandparents might have had one around the house







Used to preserve food in the early 1900s
Packs (Boeing 737)
Left pack uses engine 1 bleed air

Right pack uses engine 2 bleed air

Conditioned cockpit air comes from the left pack

Conditioned air is mixed from both packs to use in the passenger cabin
Ram Air Inlet
Ram air used in heat exchangers

When no ram air is present, such as while parked or taxiing, a fan is used to move air over the heat exchangers to cool the bleed air
Pressurization
Jet and Turboprop Aircraft can fly very high
Pressurization becomes a necessity for:
Comfort
Safety
Prevention of hypoxia
Prevention of death
Environmental Control System
Small piston aircraft can bleed air from the turbocharger for pressurization
Large Aircraft are most commonly pressurized by bleed air
-pressure level maintained by the outflow valve
Cabin Pressure Altitude
Relative altitude inside aircraft cabin
Measured in feet
FAA states that it cannot exceed 8,000ft
Additional Information
Project 1 – Draw ACM Schematic
Air Conditioning in Aircraft
A Bit of History
The ancient Romans were known to circulate aquaduct water through certain homes for cooling.

In 1842, Dr. John Gorrie, a Physician, invented an ice making machine using a compressor. He eventually got a patent for the rickety machine, but funds were scarce and the idea never caught on. He died a poor man in 1855.

Finally in 1902, the first modern electrical air conditioning was invented by Willis Haviland Carrier.
Basic Thermodynamics
First Law: Energy can be changed from one form to another, but cannot be created nor destroyed (Law of conservation)

Second Law: Heat will not pass from a cold to a hot body (Law of entropy)
Natural tendency to even out
Typical Refrigeration Cycle
How Does it Work?
Starts with Hot Engine Bleed Air

Taken from the 10th and 14th stages of the compressor (can exceed 150°C)


Air passes through the primary heat exchanger and is cooled


Air enters a centrifugal compressor (result = increase in temp and pressure)
Air enters the secondary heat exchanger and is further cooled
Now the cool, pressurized air enters the expansion turbine
Pressure drops
Temperature drops
Turbine is rotated
Air goes through water separator and then into the cabin
Cooling the aircraft
Most important on the ground and at relatively low altitudes (high OAT)
A ground source can be used
Enters the mixing manifold and then the cabin
Air conditioning packs
Contain Air Cycle Machines
Schematic of a 737 system
Inside the Smiths ACM
Cabin Pressure Altitude
Negative Pressure Relief Valve
Occasionally upon landing, cabin pressure exceeds ambient air pressure.

In this case it may be required to activate the negative pressure relief valve.
Decompression
Subtle Decompression
Dangerous because it may go undetected

Rapid Decompression
Dangerous because there is not much time to react before hypoxia strikes
Altitude Barrier
When designing a high altitude aircraft, it becomes apparent that in order keep the cabin pressure altitude at or below 8000’, the pressure differential must increase.

The problem is that this requires a fuselage that can withstand the high pressure differential. Materials at this point become either expensive or heavy.
Questions?
Air Cycle Machine Diagram
Air enters the secondary heat exchanger and is further cooled
Now the cool, pressurized air enters the expansion turbine
Pressure drops
Temperature drops
Turbine is rotated
Air goes through water separator and then into the cabin
Ram Air Inlet
Ram air used in heat exchangers

When no ram air is present, such as while parked or taxiing, a fan is used to move air over the heat exchangers to cool the bleed air
Schematic of a 737 system
Inside the Smiths ACM
Additional Information
Project 2 – Draw ACM Schematic,
label all major components,
State the function of each component.

Primary Heat Exchanger
Water Seperater
ACM Compressor
Second HE
Compressor
Turbine
Bleed Air
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Full transcript