Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

EM LEC NOTES - part 1

No description
by

Noor Ismail

on 24 September 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of EM LEC NOTES - part 1

ENGINEERING MATERIALS
LECTURE NOTES

DR. NOOR MAZNI BINTI ISMAIL (Ph.D)

BLOCK D, ROOM # DG19

09 - 4245819
012 - 4257925

drmazni@ump.edu.my

CONTRIBUTION OF ASSESSMENT
TEACHING PLAN
SYNOPSIS
William D.Callister, Jr., Materials Science & Engineering: An Introduction, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R. Schmid, Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Pearson Prentice-Hall, Inc.

J.T. Black, Ronald A. Kohser, Materials & Processes in Manufacturing, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Recommended reference books:
SYLLABUS /
COURSE GUIDELINES

A measurement of how good a product is.

What is Performance?

Multiple procedures to produce something pre-determined.

1.0 What is Processing?

Stone, clay, wood

Prehistoric

Materials in our live - Chemical

Cost?
Effective?
Fabrication?
Safety?

Mechanical Engineer
Civil & Structure Engineer
Electrical Engineer
Electronic Engineer
Aerospace Engineer
Chemical Engineer
Etc……

Why we need to study Mat. Sci. & Eng. ?

Introduction to Materials
Fundamental of Materials Engineering & Manufacturing
Bonding and Properties
Crystal Structures & Properties
Imperfection in Solids
Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and Manufacturing Properties of Materials
Physical Properties of Materials
Failure, Corrosion & Degradation of Materials
Metal Alloys
Phase Diagram
Phase Transformation – Heat Treatment
Processing and Application of Metals
Structure and Properties of Ceramics
Applications and Processing of Ceramics
Structure of Polymeric Materials
Characteristics, applications, and Processing of Polymeric Materials
Composites

Course Guideline:

Contribution of assessment

SMART MATERIALS:
Materials that are able to sense changes in their environments and then respond to these changes in predetermined manners
Devices made from Smart Materials
Sensors (detects an input signal)

POLYMERS:
Plastic and rubber materials
Organic materials
Long molecular chains/network containing C, H, and other nonmetallic elements (O, N, Si)
Non-crystalline (mostly) or a mixture of both
Properties at RT
Low density
Mechanically flexible
Poor electrical conductor

METALS:
Inorganic materials (one or more metallic elements – alloy)
Crystalline structure
May contain a small amount of non-metallic elements
Good thermal & electrical conductors (large numbers of non-localized electrons = electrons are not bound to particular atoms)
Properties at room temperature (RT)
Strong and ductile (capable of large amounts of deformation without fracture)
Stiff
Good strength
Dense
Resistance to fracture

TOPIC CONTENTS

1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

Properties

Structure

Adding other substances

Heat Treatment

Change of Properties

Hardness (BHN)

• Processing can change structure

ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel

Data obtained from Figs. 10.21(a)
and 10.23 with 4wt%C composition,
and from Fig. 11.13 and associated
discussion, Callister 6e.
Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig.
10.10; (b) Fig. 9.27;(c) Fig. 10.24;
and (d) Fig. 10.12, Callister 6e.

• Properties depend on structure

ex: hardness vs structure of steel

IMPORTANT

To succeed in processing materials with a given set of properties, it is necessary to understand the basis of the properties from the atomic and molecular level, and to understand how small differences in structure can lead to large differences in observed properties.
4 components that are involved in design, production, and utilization of materials.
Processing
Structure
Properties
Performance
How do these components interrelated?

Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
Combines both basic knowledge and applications and forms a bridge between the basic sciences (physics, chemistry, and mathematic) and the various engineering disciplines (electrical, mechanical, manufacturing, chemical, civil, and aerospace engineering).
Interdisciplinary nature.

Discipline of Materials Study

Materials Science
Science - scientia (Knowledge)
Study of basic materials knowledge.
Investigation of the relationship between STRUCTURES and PROPERTIES of materials
Materials Engineering
Engineer – ingeneur
Used of Materials Science knowledge (fundamental) to design and to produce materials with properties that will meet the requirements of society.
Structure-Property correlations, designing or engineering the structure of a material to a pre-determined set of properties.

1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

I.J. McColm, “Special ceramic for modern applications: which? Why? How?” in Ceramic Processing, R.A. Terpstra, P.P.A.C. Pex, and A.H. De Vries Edns, Chapman & Hall, 1995.

Electrical Age (Silicon Age) and beyond

Iron Age
Marks the period of development of technology replacing bronze as the basic material for tool implemention and weapon
Last stage of the archaeological sequence

Bronze Age
Bronze (Cooper + tin + zinc)
The time in the development of any human culture
Before introduction of iron, when most tools and weapons were made from bronze

Stone Age

Early in the developments of human cultures, before the use of metals


Tools & weapons were made of stone

Engineering Materials
Materials used to produce technical products.
Engineered materials with desired properties.

What are Engineering Materials?

What are Materials?

Materials
Substances from which something is composed or made from.
Development of human civilization has been closely tied to materials which have been produced and used in society.

Materials in our live – Infrastructural & Transportation

Materials in our live – Aerospace & Mechanical

Traditional wood→steel→concrete→polymer composite (made of layers of glass fabric + resins)

Advantages of Polymer Composites
1) won't rust, or corrode
2) require no preservatives
3) light-weight, lighter than aluminum, wood, steel or concrete.
4) the lowest possible total installed cost

Materials in our live – Civil & Structural

Electronic & Electrical
Mechanical
Chemical
Civil & Structural
Infrastructure & Transportation
Aerospace
Military
Telecommunications
Entertainment

Materials in our live

1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

Introduction to Materials:

Recommended reference books:

William D.Callister, Jr., 2011. Materials Science & Engineering: An Introduction, Sixth Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R. Schmid, 2010. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Sixth Edition, Pearson Prentice-Hall, Inc.


J.T. Black, Ronald A. Kohser, 2007. Materials & Processes in Manufacturing, Tenth Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

LECTURE 1
NOOR MAZNI ISMAIL
FACULTY OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

Summary

• Recognize new design opportunities offered
by materials selection.

• Understand the relation between properties,
structure, performance, and processing.

• Use the right material for the job.

End of Topic 1

NANO-ENGINEERED MATERIALS:
Dimension <100 nm (~500 atom diameters)
Bottom-up technique
Top-down technique
Materials by design
Exp: carbon nanotube

SEMICONDUCTORS:
Electrical properties intermediate between conductors and insulators
Electrical characteristics are extremely sensitive to the presence of minute concentration of impurity atoms, which concentrations may be controlled over very small spatial region
Conductivity increasing with temperature

BIOMATERIALS:
Components implanted into human body for replacement of diseased or damaged parts.
Must not produce toxic substances
Compatible with body tissues
All above materials may be used as biomaterials


COMPOSITES:
Mixture of two or more types of materials
A matrix phase + a reinforcing phase
Designed to ensure a combination of the best properties of each component material.

CERAMICS:
Inorganic materials (metallic + non-metallic elements)
Oxides, nitrides, carbides
Crystalline, non-crystalline, or a mixture of both
Properties at RT
High melting point
High chemical stabilities
High hardness
High temperature strength
Brittle (lack ductility)
Poor electrical and thermal conductor.

How can aerodynamic car chassis be formed?

High level of toughness and formability


What is the strength-to density ratio?

Microstructure, What features of the structure limit the strength?

Structure

Property

Process

Performance

“Tetrahedron” Interrelationship:
Car body  What is the right material to use?

3.0 What is Property?

PROPERTIES
Mechanical
Electrical
Thermal
Magnetic
Optical
Deteriorative

Material: Conductor
Stimulus: voltage
Response: Electric Current

Materials trait in term of the kind and magnitude of response to a specific imposed stimulus

Properties

Case Study:
Titanic


at the time of the collision,
the temperature of
the sea water was -2°C.

Plain carbon steel had a high ductile-brittle transition temperature, making it unsuitable for service at low temperatures;

Case Study:
The Space Shuttle Challenger Accident

Why?
which blamed on faulty in the joint-embrittlement of rubber O-rings

Tragedy
On the morning of January 28, 1986, the space shuttle Challenger blasted off from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
All Seven crew members died in the explosion.

Excellent mechanical strength, creep resistance at high temperature, good surface stability, corrosion and oxidation resistance

Nickel base superalloys are used in structure of aircraft turbine engines. What are the major properties of this metal that make it suitable for this application?


QUIZ……

Nano-material

Nano-engineered
Material

Smart Material

Materials of the future

Biomaterials

Semiconductor

Advanced
Materials

Besides the above mentioned classification, we also have:
ADVANCED MATERIALS:
Materials that are utilized in high-tech application (device/product that operates or functions using relatively intricate and sophisticated principles)
DVD Players, Microprocesser, Liquid Crystal Display.

Class of Materials

Composite

Ceramic

Polymer

Metal

Solid Materials Classification

Optical property

polycrystal:
high porosity

polycrystal:
low porosity

single crystal

Adapted from Fig. 1.2,
Callister 6e.
(Specimen preparation,
P.A. Lessing; photo by J. Telford.)

• Transmittance:
--Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or
opaque depending on the material structure.

2.0 What is Structure?

Viewed by naked eye

Direct observation using microscope tools

Organization of atoms or molecules relative to one another

Electron within individual atoms and interaction with their nuclei

Macroscopic level

Microscopic level

Atomic level

Arrangement of its internal components

Structure

Subatomic level

Selecting the RIGHT material.

Material: structure, composition.

Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,
magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

Processing: changes structure and overall shape
ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.

Identify required Processing

Material

3.

Identify candidate Material(s)

Properties

2.

Determine required Properties

Pick Application

1.

Materials Selection Process

Materials in our live – Electrical & Electronic

IC & CMOS

MOSFET

Transistor
(BJT)

Vacuum Tube

ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Evolution of Materials

Prehistoric

MATERIALS

Advance composites
Surface treatment
Artificial layered structures

Electric
Age
(Silicon Age)

Minimum material processing.
Produce better material properties to those occurring naturally
Iron, steel, other metals.
Steam engine

Alloy of copper

Materials existing in nature.
stone, wood, clay

Nano
Material
Age

Designed
Materials
Age

Stone
Age

Bronze
Age

Iron
Age
(Industrial
Revolution)

END OF LECTURE

Thank you

SMART MATERIALS:
-> Materials that are able to sense changes in their environments and then respond to these changes in predetermined manners
-> Devices made from Smart Materials:
Sensors
(detects an input signal)

1. Materials Overview.

2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

METALS:

Inorganic materials
(one or more metallic elements – alloy)

Crystalline structure

May contain a small amount of non-metallic elements

Good thermal & electrical conductors
(large numbers of non-localized electrons = electrons are not bound to particular atoms)

Properties at room temperature (RT):
Strong and ductile (capable of large amounts of deformation without fracture), Stiff, Good strength, Dense, Resistance to fracture

Multiple procedures to produce something pre-determined.

1.0: What is Processing?

Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)


-> Combines both basic knowledge and applications and
forms a bridge
between the basic sciences (physics, chemistry, and mathematic) and the various engineering disciplines (electrical, mechanical, manufacturing, chemical, civil, and aerospace engineering).

-> Interdisciplinary nature.

Discipline of Materials Study

Materials Science
-> Science - scientia (Knowledge)
-> Study of basic materials knowledge.
* Investigation of the relationship between
STRUCTURES
and

PROPERTIES
of materials


Materials Engineering
-> Engineer – ingeneur
->
Used
of Materials Science knowledge (fundamental) to
design
and to produce materials with properties that will
meet the requirements of society.
-> Structure-Property correlations, designing or engineering the structure of a material to a pre-determined set of properties.

I.J. McColm, “Special ceramic for modern applications: which? Why? How?” in Ceramic Processing, R.A. Terpstra, P.P.A.C. Pex, and A.H. De Vries Edns, Chapman & Hall, 1995.

Cost?
Effective?
Fabrication?
Safety?

Manufacturing Engineer
Mechanical Engineer
Civil & Structure Engineer
Electrical Engineer
Electronic Engineer
Aerospace Engineer
Chemical Engineer
Etc……

1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

Introduction to Materials:

SEMICONDUCTORS:
-> Electrical properties intermediate between conductors and insulators
-> Electrical characteristics are extremely sensitive to the presence of minute concentration of impurity atoms, which concentrations may be controlled over very small spatial region
-> Conductivity increasing with temperature



BIOMATERIALS:
-> Components implanted into human body for replacement of diseased or damaged parts.
-> Must not produce toxic substances
-> Compatible with body tissues


COMPOSITES:

Mixture of two or more types of materials

A matrix phase + a reinforcing phase

Designed to ensure a combination of the best properties of each component material.

A measurement of how good a product is.

4.0: What is Performance?

IMPORTANT

To succeed in processing materials with a given set of properties, it is necessary to understand the basis of the properties from the atomic and molecular level, and to understand how small differences in structure can lead to large differences in observed properties.
4 components that are involved in design, production, and utilization of materials.
Processing
Structure
Properties
Performance
How do these components interrelated?

1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials

Iron Age

Marks the period of
development of technology
replacing bronze as the basic material for tool implementation and weapon

Last stage of the
archaeological
sequence

Bronze Age

Bronze (Cooper + tin + zinc)

The time in the development of any human culture. Before introduction of iron, when most tools and weapons were made from bronze

Stone Age

Early in the developments of human cultures, before the use of metals

Tools & weapons were made of stone

Stone, clay, wood

Prehistoric

Engineering Materials:

Materials used to produce technical products.

Engineered materials with desired properties.

What are Engineering Materials?

What are Materials?

Materials:

Substances from which something is composed or made from.

Development of human civilization has been closely tied to materials which have been produced and used in society.

Introduction to Materials
Fundamental of Materials Engineering & Manufacturing
Bonding and Properties
Crystal Structures & Properties
Imperfection in Solids
Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and Manufacturing Properties of Materials
Physical Properties of Materials
Failure, Corrosion & Degradation of Materials
Metal Alloys
Phase Diagram
Heat Treatment

Processing and Application of Metals
Structure, Properties, Applications and Processing of Ceramics
Structure, Properties, Application and Processsing of Polymeric Materials
Composites

Summary

• Recognize new design opportunities offered
by materials selection.

• Understand the relation between
properties
,

structure
,
performance
, and
processing
.

• Use the right material for the job.

NANO-ENGINEERED MATERIALS:
Dimension <100 nm (~500 atom diameters)


CERAMICS:

Inorganic materials (metallic + non-metallic elements)
Oxides, nitrides, carbides
Crystalline, non-crystalline, or a mixture of both

Properties at RT:
High melting point
High chemical stabilities
High hardness
High temperature strength
Brittle (lack ductility)
Poor electrical and thermal conductor.

Materials in Infrastructural & Transportation

Materials in Chemical

Electronic & Electrical
Mechanical
Chemical
Civil & Structural
Infrastructure & Transportation
Aerospace
Military
Telecommunications
Entertainment

Materials in our lives:

Excellent mechanical strength,
creep resistance at high temperature
, good surface stability,
corrosion and oxidation resistance

Nickel base superalloys are used in the structure of aircraft turbine engines. What are the major properties of this metal that make it suitable for this application?
QUIZ……

POLYMERS:

Plastic and rubber materials
Organic materials
Long molecular chains/network containing C, H, and other nonmetallic elements (O, N, Si)
Non-crystalline (mostly) or a mixture of both

Properties at RT:
Low density
Mechanically flexible
Poor electrical conductor

Case Study:
The Space Shuttle Challenger Accident

Why?
which blamed on faulty in the joint-
embrittlement of rubber O-rings

Tragedy
On the morning of January 28, 1986, the space shuttle Challenger blasted off from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

All Seven crew members died in the explosion.

Materials in Aerospace & Mechanical

3.0: What is Property?

Materials in Civil & Structural

Traditional wood / clay / limestone→ -> steel & concrete ->
polymer composite.

Advantages of Polymer Composites
1) won't rust, or corrode
2) require no preservatives
3) light-weight, lighter than aluminum, wood, steel or concrete.
4) the lowest possible total installed cost

Class of Materials

Hardness (BHN)

• Processing can change structure


ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel

Data obtained from Figs. 10.21(a)
and 10.23 with 4wt%C composition,
and from Fig. 11.13 and associated
discussion, Callister 6e.
Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig.
10.10; (b) Fig. 9.27;(c) Fig. 10.24;
and (d) Fig. 10.12, Callister 6e.


Properties
depend on
structure

ex: hardness vs structure of steel

Electrical Age (Silicon Age) and beyond

Besides the above mentioned classification, we also have:

ADVANCED MATERIALS:

Materials that are utilized in high-tech application (device/product that operates or functions using relatively intricate and sophisticated principles)
DVD Players, Microprocesser, Liquid Crystal Display.

Optical property

polycrystal:
high porosity

polycrystal:
low porosity

single crystal

Adapted from Fig. 1.2,
Callister 6e.
(Specimen preparation,
P.A. Lessing; photo by J. Telford.)

• Transmittance:
--Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or
opaque depending on the material structure.

2.0 What is Structure?

Materials Selection Process

Materials in Electrical & Electronic

IC & CMOS

MOSFET

Transistor
Vacuum Tube

Evolution of Materials

Why do we need to study materials?
This course introduces the fundamental concepts of engineering materials which includes the
structure of materials
,
mechanical and physical properties of materials
, binary
phase diagrams
,
TTT diagram
,
heat treatment
,
applications and current developments of metal, polymer, ceramic, composite and advanced materials
. Also, basic understanding on the
environmental degradation
of engineering materials.
By the end of semester, students should be able to:

CO1: Gain fundamental concepts on the classification of various
engineering materials.

CO2: Perform structure-property correlations for engineering materials
based on the microstructures.

CO3: Analyze binary phase diagrams, TTT diagram, cooling curve, and
correlate with microstructures and properties.

CO4: Evaluate the criteria in the selection of materials for engineering
applications.
COURSE OUTCOMES
PROGRAM OUTCOMES
PO 1 (Knowledge)
Apply knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems. - FE

PO 7 (Environmental and Sustainability)
Understand the impact of professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts and demonstrate knowledge of and need for sustainable development. - AS
To succeed in
processing
materials with a given set of
properties
, it is necessary to understand the basis of the properties from the atomic and molecular level, and to understand how
small differences in structure
can
lead to large differences in observed properties.

4 components that are involved in design, production, and utilization of materials.
Processing
Structure
Properties
Performance

How do these components interrelated?

1. Materials Overview.
2. Materials Science and Engineering
3. Classification of Materials
PO - CO Mapping
PO 1 (Knowledge)
Apply knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems.

PO 7 (Environmental and Sustainability)
Understand the impact of professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts and demonstrate knowledge of and need for sustainable development.

CO1
: Gain fundamental concepts on the classification of various engineering materials.

CO2
: Perform structure-property correlations for engineering materials based on the microstructures.

CO3
: Analyze binary phase diagrams, TTT diagram, cooling curve, and correlate with microstructures and properties.

CO4
: Evaluate the criteria in the selection of materials for engineering applications.
WhatsApp for our class ?
My phone number: 012 4257925
Full transcript