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Transcript of Ecosystems
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What is an ecosystem?
Scales of ecosystems
Competition in ecosystems
The carbon cycle
What is an Ecosystem?
includes all of the living things in a given area, interacting with each other and their non-living environments
each organism has its own role
biotic members depend on each other and abiotic factors to survive
the absence of one member or one abiotic factor can affect all members of an ecosystem
source of all the energy in food chains
first level of the food chain
absorb the Sun's energy to make their food by photosythesis
commonly green plants
can also be algae, seaweed, phytoplankton, and some types of bacteria
consume the green plants
examples include insects, sheep, rabbits, caterpillars, and cows
eat bodies of dead animals, dead plant matter and animal dung
examples include vultures, worms, and crabs
eat primary consumers
commonly called carnivores
examples include lions, snakes and cats
eat secondary consumers
examples include hawks, sharks, owls, and humans
break down the cells of remaining dead plant and animal matter and extract the last remaining energy
examples include bacteria and fungi
start the cycle again
all living things need to feed to get energy to grow, move and reproduce
smaller animals feed on plants, bigger animals feed on smaller ones, and so on
this feeding relationship in an ecosystem is called a food chain
network of many food chains
come in many different sizes
can be classified into three main scales: micro, messo, and biome
ecosystems can be put into two groups: aquatic and terrestrial
Scales of Ecosystems
large ecological areas on the Earth's surface
not an ecosystem
plants and animals in biomes have special adaptations that make it possible for them to survive in that environment
you may find many units of ecosystems within one biome
five major categories of biomes: desert, aquatic, forest, grassland and tundra
biomass pyramids show the number of organisms, biomass and productivity on each tropic level
The Carbon Cycle
Competition in Ecosystems
an interaction between individuals within a community that both or all need a limited resource
as a result of the interaction, involved individuals suffer
they experience reduced growth, survival, or reproductive capability
very important to all ecosystems and to life on Earth
critical to the food chain
"The Carbon Cycle." ESchool Today. N.p., 2010. Web. 19 Jan. 2015. <http://
"Competition in Ecosystems." Everyday Life. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Jan. 2015. <http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/competition-
"Ecosystems." NatureWorks. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Jan. 2015. <http://
"Food Chains." ESchool Today. N.p., 2010. Web. 17 Jan. 2015. <http://
"Scales of Ecosystems." ESchool Today. N.p., 2010. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
"Trophic Levels of Food Chains." ESchool Today. N.p., 2010. Web. 21 Jan.
"What Is a Biome, and What Are the Major Types on Earth?" ESchool Today.
N.p., 2010. Web. 20 Jan. 2015. <http://eschooltoday.com/ecosystems/what-is-a-biome.html>.
"What Is an Ecosystem?" ESchool Today. N.p., 2010. Web. 18 Jan. 2015.