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Writing in L2 with least interference of L1

EFL/ ESL writing

Nada Baghdadi

on 25 May 2014

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Transcript of Writing in L2 with least interference of L1

Grouping Strategy
What- Read about Jeddah to write about it.

When- Before pre-writing.

Why- Enrich vocabulary
- Build grammar structure
- Enhance writing style

How- Provide reading material / ELLs level (2/3)
- Individual diagram
- Highlight "the good part"
- Jigsaw
Peer Editing
What - 2/3 students
- Correction of grammar and mechanics.

Why- Improve proofreading skill

When- Before the FINAL draft

How- Mini-lesson on grammar element
- Editing checklist
Pairing for Peer editing:
Never skip a level!
-Beginner / pre-intermediate
-Intermediate / advanced
Process Writing... Are we following it?
REMEMBER the most important part!
Email: nbaghdadi@kau.edu.sa
How to Help an ELL Arabic Speaker Develops Writing in L2 with the Least Interference of the Culture of L1?
It is unattainable to eliminate the L1 cultural influence completely but there is a giant chance to limit this influence.
students course works/ write the same essay in English & Arabic
One student withdrew
Main aspects:
Writing process- L1 Focus
on ideas but L2 focus on grammar and mechanics
Grammar/ preposition
Vocabulary choice
Presentation of idea
My research question: How to help an ELL Arabic speaker develops writing in L2 with the least interference of the culture of L1?

Observation notes
Student writing samples
Interview with the teacher and students
LaGuardia Community College - CUNY
Adult students in CLIP (CUNY Language Immersion program)
Class: 20 ELLs
Action research: 3 Arabic speaking ELLs

By Nada A. Baghdadi
By the end of this research-based workshop you will be able to :

Understand the significant effect of
technique on improving ss writing skills.
Understand the value of
students work on raising ss motivation.
Recognize the effectiveness of
"response group"
technique on developing ss writing skills.
Utilize helpful
group strategy
in peer editing in your classroom.
Design a draft lesson plan
that includes one or more of the techniques above.

Three techniques:
Response groups
Peer editing
"Those who read more have less writing apprehension because of their superior command of the written language"
Response Groups
What- 3/5 Students - listen for IDEAS

When- After 1st draft

Why- Support writer
- Focus on ideas, evidence,introduction...

How- Model it first
- Role play
- Positive, questions and suggestions.
Response Groups:
"Whatever the language skills being taught- listening, speaking, reading or writing-
oriented tasks enrich and extend the learning process when developed with
proper care
Heterogeneous Groups
English Proficiency Level:
Group Ss according to their level:
Yellow= Beginner
Green= Pre-intermediate
Pink= Intermediate
Pair Ss according to their English level:

Yellow= Beginner
Green= Pre-intermediate
Pink= Intermediate
Purple= Advanced
Pre-intermediate and intermediate
Last but not Least
Process Writing
Diagramming/ Mapping
1st & 2nd draft
2nd & before final draft
Before the final draft
Why- Visualizing
- Interest and enthusiasm
- Purpose

How- Class magazine
- Student's book
- Classroom bulletin board
- Instructor's website/ blog
- SSU support (Writing Cafe)
Thank you!
Birch, B. M. (2006). English L2 Reading: Getting to the Bottom. New York, NY. Routledge. p. 39
Boyle, O. F., Peregoy, S. F. (2005) Reading, writing, and Learning in ESL: A Recourse Book For K-12 Teachers . USA: Pearson.
Cochran-Smith, M. Paris, C.L. and Khan, J.L. (1991). Learning to Write Differently: Beginning Writers and Word Processing. Westport CT, Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 36
Cunningham P. M. , Cunningham, J. W. Moore, D. W. & Moore, S. A. (2006). Developing Readers and Writers in the Content Areas K-12. USA: Pearson.
Gambrell, L.B. Morrow, L.M. Pressley, M. and Guthrie, J.T. (2007). Best Practices in Literacy Instruction. New York, NY. Guilford Press. p. 16
Hyland, K. (2003). Second Language Writing. Cambridge, MA. Cambridge University Press. p. 46
Krashen, S. D. (2004) The Power of Reading. USA: Heinemann/ Libraries Unlimited.
Pemberton, M.A. (1999). The Ethics of Writing Instruction: Issues in Theory and Practice. Westport CT. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 80
Rouchdy, A. (2002). Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic: Variations on Sociolinguistic Theme. New York, NY. Routledge. p. 345
Rogers, H. (2005). Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach. New York, NY. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 133
Schumm, J. S. (2006). Reading Assessment and Instruction for all Learners. New York, NY. Guilford Press. p. 24
Schmitt, N. & McCarthy, M. (1997). Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy. Cambridge, MA. Cambridge University Press. p. 58
Topping, K. J. and Ehly, S. W. (1998). Peer-assisted Learning. New York, NY. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 76
Tate, G., Rupiper, A. and Schick, K. (2001). A Guide to Composition Pedagogies. Oxford, OX. Oxford University Press. p. 62
Unsworth, S. & Schwartz, B.D. (2006). Paths of Development in L1 and L2 acquisition. Philadelphia, PA. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 80
Strategies to choose from:
Fear of Writing
Sentence Combining

Sentence Models

Show and
 If . . . , if . . . , if . . . , then Subject Verb.

 Because . . . , because . . . , because . . . , Subject Verb.

 When . . . , when . . . , when . . . , Subject Verb.

Student examples of the model:
 If I was rich, if I could buy anything, I would buy my parents a house.

 Because it is rainy, because it is cold, because I feel lazy, I think I won’t go to school today.

 When I am home, when I am board, when I have nothing to study, I watch television.
Sentence Models:
Show and Not Tell:
Model Response Groups:
A- Display an anonymous 1st draft on OHP
B- Find 1 or 2 IDEAS you like in the paper
C- Teach them the golden rule of starting with positive comment
D- Model questions to ask the author for unclear statements
More Clarification and Qs Examples:
What do you mean by this part_______?
This part__________ is not clear

What part did you like the most?
I need help in this part__________.
How do our students feel about writing?

1- Avoid alliteration. Always.
2- Prepositions are now words to end sentences with.
3- Avoid clichés like the plague. (They’re old hat)
4- Eschew ampersands & abbreviations, etc.
5- One should never generalize.
6- Comparisons are as bad as clichés.
7- Be more or less specific.
8- Sentence fragments? Eliminate.
9- Exaggeration is a billion times worse than understatement.
10- Parenthetical remarks (however relevant) are unnecessary.
11- Who needs rhetorical questions?
How to Write Good...

- Krashen
Do you believe that writing is an individual skill?
Sentence modeling:
Reading material/ writing produced by a student
Build ss confidence when they move from one level to the other in writing. Our students can
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