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International Deaf (Education)
Transcript of International Deaf (Education)
Sign language, oralism, etc.
Track changes in education over time
Look at European nations and developing nations Legacy Education = empowerment
Stronger Deaf communities
Analyze effects of Deaf education on Deaf communities
Predict how Deaf education will affect future and social attitudes Deaf President Now (DPN) changed Deaf education worldwide
Led to formations of collegiate programs for the Deaf
Japan, Sweden, and South Africa United States Origin of the first sign language in the world. The first deaf schools were established in 18th-century Paris and were run by Abbe de l'Épée.
In 1816, Laurent Clerc met Thomas Gallaudet, and the two worked together to create ASL. The two men started the first school for the deaf in the U.S. (The American Asylum in Hartford, Connecticut).
Sign language was prohibited in French deaf schools until 1976.
There are between 80,000 and 300,000 people worldwide who use French Sign Language. Congress of Milan
Before the congress, sign languages in Europe were widespread.
In 1880, a congress of hearing educators gathered in Milan, where they decided to ban the use of sign languages in deaf education. An oral approach was adopted.
Deaf teachers were dismissed, sign languages were banned from the classroom and the social sphere of life in deaf schools was labelled "an oral failure.” Signed languages have been formally recognized in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland.
In Sweden, mainstreaming is not considered a viable option. Instead, bilingual education policy for deaf children is advocated.
Deaf children are encouraged to learn foreign languages, such as British Sign Language (BSL) or ASL.
In Denmark, all teachers of the deaf must complete a qualifying course in Danish Sign Language (DSL). Literacy skills for deaf kids with DSL as a first language are better than those of their peers who are educated orally. Unlike Scandinavia, Deaf schools are exempted from teaching foreign languages and deaf and hard of hearing children are often exempted from learning them.
This is based on the false assumption that deafness is a ‘language disability,' which impedes language learning. Deaf people may learn a second signed language as a foreign language in school.
In some countries, there is no strongly established national signed language, so deaf people travel to neighbouring countries in order to learn a neighbouring signed language.
There is a European Community funded program, called “Signs of the Future,” which enables Deaf people to learn foreign languages. It offers resources in four languages: British Sign Language (BSL), LSF, English and French. Other developments include moves towards developing European Language Portfolios for signed languages.
‘Sim-Com’ became popular in Europe in the 1980s.
Deaf people in Eastern Europe do not have as many rights or opportunities as those in Western Europe. China Largest population in the world - more disabled people than other nations
Past 50 years: oralism
Sign language was discouraged and banned from some classrooms
Less than 10% of 800,000 deaf children by the age of seven understood spoken language enough to attend public schools
Up to 70% of time is spent pronouncing basic words
Miss out on education as well as important life and communication skills
Result: community of 22 million people who are poorly educated and marginalized Deaf education is especially important
80% of deaf and hard of hearing live in developing countries
Poorer, worse living conditions, no health services
No education for deaf
Hinders social and economic development South Africa Japan Before:
Over 70% of 93 schools for the Deaf use sign language
However, they use "manually-coded Japanese"
Combination of oral training, JSL, and the manually-coded Japanese = poor quality of Deaf education India Developing Countries Scandinavia Stronger Deaf community and education, compared to those in other African nations
Over 40 schools for the Deaf
Can serve as role model to other African nations
Even has a deaf television program, Deaf TV Questions What kind of education promotes Deaf education and how?
What kind of education hinders Deaf education and how?
How might bi-bi method change social attitudes? Deaf communities? Over 5% of world's population (360 million people) are deaf or hard of hearing (at least moderate degree of hearing loss)
Deaf children are far behind their hearing peers
On average, Deaf children read at 4.5 grade level after 12 years of schooling
If a child does not learn a language by the age of three (critical period), he/she will have an extremely difficult time to learn one Connect Deaf and Hearing worlds
Promote Deaf awareness
Eliminate stereotypes and discrimination
Deaf education - slightly better but still extremely poor
Education focuses mostly on vocational training (carpentry, weaving, painting, and other trades)
Conditions of Deaf education reflected religious beliefs
Hearing parents merely pitied and neglected deaf children—no abuse, only apathy Paris Italy England Many problems persist with Deaf educational system, but...
Bilingual-Bicultural education approach - slowly becoming widespread
China and India
Deaf education and Deaf culture are relatively new in many countries Education of Deaf can change people's attitudes toward the Deaf
Remove social prejudice
Higher literacy rates among Deaf children
Higher employment rates
More Deaf empowerment and rights
Stronger Deaf communities
Deaf Pride and Identity Belief that the children are deaf because of their misdeeds in their previous lives
Nothing can be done about that
Ex: one father of a deaf boy said that the deaf should not be taught speech because it is God’s desire that they remain mute as punishment for misdeeds in their previous lives Changing Deaf education = must change religious beliefs = could affect the future about Indian religions Congress of Milan had a large impact on Deaf education
Encouraged oralism, which failed Before India’s independence (1947): After India’s independence: Many schools use 'Total Communication' method, combining both signs and spoken words together. Out of 420 total schools:
Almost 70% use Total Communication
30% schools use Oral Communication
Less than 2% use Sign Language Oralism is still the primary method
Too much emphasis on oral skills = failure to develop other and much more important skills: language acquirement, cognition, social skills, and emotional maturity Poor awareness of Deaf and their culture
Sign language - used, then banned
Oralism - prevalent
Children educated through Total Communication - poor language skills General Facts About Deaf Education in Europe