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Agriculture

APES 2012
by

lauren nye

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of Agriculture

1 of every 7 Ohioans has an agriculture-related job In the Know: Agriculture Industrialized Agriculture Monoculture—the practice of growing single crops intensively on a very large scale.

Requires multitudes of: fossil fuels, fertilizers, pesticides, and water.

1960's "High Input", large scale farming. All of the crops or livestock raised are used to maintain the farmer and the farmer’s family

Mostly preindustrial; done by human and animal labor Traditional Intensive Agriculture Produces enough to feed farmer's family and to sell

T.I. farmers are typically wealthier, and may also use pesticides, fertilizers, & irregation systems

Still on a small scale; it's slightly larger than Traditional Substinence farming Example of Industrialized Agriculture Plantation Agriculture Export oriented
Monoculture of cash crops
Declined abruptly in the U.S. with the ending of the Civil War
Used mostly in developing, tropical countries Traditional Substinence Farming Erosion

Desertification

Salinization

Pollution Soil Erosion Deterioration of soil by the physical movement of soil particles from a given site

Causes: wind, water, ice, animals, and the use of tools by man

Agriculture: Clearing of vegetation, direction of cultivation, tilling
~Loss Tolerance, or "T", values Desertification Land degrading into desert or the process by which fertile land becomes desert
~Sahel

Drought + land abuse = desertification

Overgrazing, erosion/degradation of soil (fertility and structure), over cultivation Salinization The process by which water-soluble salts accumulate in the soil

Excessive salt hinders the growth of crops by limiting their ability to take up water

If salt doesn’t drain properly or reach saline sinks, it builds

Agricultural causes: overirrgation, excess fertilizers Pollution Nonpoint source pollutants are nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus), sediment, animal wastes, pesticides, and salts

Pollutants travel through environment via runoff and ground seepage

Water quality suffers Problems with Agriculture Solutions; farm smart! Fallowing and mulching farm land
Organic fertilizers and crop rotations
Intercropping
Countour Farming
Agroforestry
Appropriate use of pesticides, fertilizers, and irrigation
Protect riparian zones around the farm Ye Olde Agriculture First hominoids (hunter-gatherers) arrived 4million years ago

American Indians farmed & domesticated many crops. They cleared ground with fire and used intercropping

For a long time across most of the world, farming was done primarily with physical labor

Industrial Revolution (1850s)-- became easier with animal powered machines

Then the 19th century brought about a revolution! Green Revolution #1 series of research, development, and technology initiatives that increased agriculture production around the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s i.e plant breeding, expansion of irrigation infrastructure: modernization of management techniques: distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers Déjà vu, it's Green Revolution #2! Farming on a genetic level

Utilized recombinant DNA—aka, artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together

Plants are given new genes. They can resist drought, produce pesticide, and be immune to disease Uh-oh!
Problems. Significant rise in...
pollution,
dead zones in oceans,
cancer

New innovations were (and still are) expensive! Genetic Engineering Advantages Disadvantages Practical Applications are
immense
-can help disease, the
environment, crop
productivity

Technology is simple Understanding complexity of the environment

Recombinant DNA in the environment (Monsanto); patenting

Raises ethical concern Types of -cides Chemical Biopesticides Organochlorine Insecticides
Organophosphate Pesticides
Pyrethroid Pesticides Microbial pesticides
Plant-Incorporated-Protectants
Biochemical pesticides Generations of Pesticides 1st Generation pesticides are natural chemicals or botanicals borrowed from plants!

2nd Generation pesticides are chemicals developed in the labratory. Chemists work to improve first generation botanical pesticides! EPA Laws Both the EPA and state agriculture offices license pesticides for use.

EPA receives its authority to register pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).

States may place more restrictive requirements on pesticides than EPA.

New pesticide? Company must run its own tests to ensure the pesticide’s saefty with reasonable certainty, then submit those tests to the EPA. Q u e s t i o n s ? Works Cited

"Agriculture and Pollution." Environment, Health, and Safety Online. N.p., 17 Nov. 2012. Web. 13 Dec. 2012.

Clifton Ross. "The Second Green Revolution." Welcome to Urban Habitat. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012.

"1st and 2nd Generation Pesticides." APES Insecticides. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2012.

"From Manpower to Horsepower." Contact Information for The College of Liberal Arts & Sciences at Iowa State University. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012.

"Intensive Agriculture." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.

"Plantation (agriculture)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.

"Plantations Agriculture." Plantations Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.

"Regulating Pesticides." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2012.

"Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America. Ed. Pamela A. Matson. Stanford University, 11 July 2007. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.

Steinhart, Peter. "THE SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012.

"Subsistence Farming (agriculture)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.

"Sustainable Agriculture Pushing Back the Desert." Sustainable Agriculture Pushing Back the Desert. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.

"Types of Pesticides." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. Having Fun on the Peterson Family (T.I.) Farm Watch, in part or full,
this video diary of
substinence farmers. Another Fun Peterson Family Farm Video
Full transcript