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PROPERTIES AND DISORDERS OF THE HAIR AND SCALP
Transcript of PROPERTIES AND DISORDERS OF THE HAIR AND SCALP
THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF HAIR,ITS DISORDERS,AND ITS CARE
trichos(hair), ology(study of).
THE STRUCTURE OF HAIR
The main component of hair is a protein called.
The full -grown human hair is divided into 2 parts:
THE HAIR ROOT
THE HAIR SHAFT.
The hair root
is that portion of the hair enclosed within the follicle beneath the
The hair shaft
is the portion of the hair we see extending above the skin surface.
THE MAIN STRUCTURES OF THE HAIR ROOT ARE:
FOLLICLE,BULB,DERMAL PAPILLA.SEBACEOUS GLANDS AND
ARRECTOR PILI MUSCLE.
IS A TUBELIKE A POCKET IN THE SKIN OR SCALP
ENCASES THE HAIR ROOT.
Hair follicles are distributed all over the body except the palms of the hands
and the soles of the feet.
The hair follicle
SURROUNDS THE DERMAL PAPILLA.
usually set into the skin at an angle
allowing the hair shaft to flow naturally over
the skin surface.
THE HAIR BULB:
Is a thick club-shaped structure that forms the lower
part of the HAIR ROOT.The lower part of the hair bulb is hollow and fits over
THE DERMAL PAPILLA.
THE DERMAL PAPILLA
,supplies oxygen and nutrients to the tissue
that lines the hair follicle.
This rich blood and nerve supply is vital to the growth and regeneration of the hair.
As long as the papilla is healthy and well nourished,new hair will grow.
GLANDS,are attached to each hair follicle,and
they secrete an oily substance called
OVERPRODUCTION OF SEBUM
CAN BRING ON A COMMON
FORM OF OILY DANDRUFF,which may become a contributing
factor of hair loss or baldness.
Some of the factors that influence sebum production are:
:starchy and fatty foods may cause the sebaceous glands
to become over-active and to secrete too much
:the hair nourishment from the
In the absence of necessary food elements,the health of the hair
, are linked with the health
of the hair through the nervous systems.The hair's condition
is affected by
DISTURBANCES INFLUENCE THE HAIR
AS WELL AS OTHER ASPECTS OF HEALTH.
THE HAIR SHAFT CONSIST OF THREE MAIN LAYERS:
is the outermost layer of the hair and consist of a single overlapping layer of transparent,scale-like cells that point away from the skin or scalp toward the hair ends.
A healthy,compact cuticle
layer is the hair's primary
against damage,protecting the inner structure of the hair, and is responsible for the shine and silkiness of the hair.
Swelling the hair
with high PH products such as tints,permanent waving solutions
raises the cuticle layer and OPENS
the spaces between the scales,
to penetrate into the cortex.
;Is the middle layer of the hair,is formed by cells that contain
About 90% of the total weight of the hair comes from the cortex.Its unique protein structure provides strength,elasticity,and natural color to the hair.The changes that take place in the hair during chemical services occur in the CORTEX.
Is the innermost layer of hair.Although mature male beard hair
contains a MEDULLA,this layer of the hair may be
ABSENT in very fine and naturally BLOND HAIR.
THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HAIR
Hair is composed of protein that grows from cells that originate within the
When these living cells form ,they begin a journey upward through the follicle,where they mature through a process called
As the new cells mature,they fill up with a fibrous protein called KERATIN;move upward,lose their nuclei,and DIE.
By the time the hair shaft emerges from the scalp,the cells are completely
NO LONGER LIVING.
The protein in human hair is made of CHEMICAL units called
, and the amino acids are made of
These elements are:
HUMAN HAIR IS ABOUT 91%
PROTEINS ARE MADE OF
LONG CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS
THE AMINO ACIDS ARE JOINED END-TO-END,BY
THE PEPTIDE BONDS
are the strongest chemical bonds in the cortex as they join each amino acid to form the
SIDE BONDS OF THE HAIR CORTEX(
known as cross-bonds)
Within the cortex millions of
are cross-linked by three types of
,these bonds form a ladder.
THE SIDE BONDS consist of
HYDROGEN,SALT,AND DISULFIDE BONDS,
which account for the strength and elasticity of human hair.
broken by water or heat
hydrogen bonds are weak,when shampooing and rinsing causes the cuticle to swell,this bonds
re-formed by drying or cooling.
React to changes in the P-H.These bonds are easily broken by strong
acidic or alkaline solutions.
;ALSO known as a
SULFUR ATOMS OF TWO NEIGHBORING CYSTEINE amino acids to create
.There are a fewer disulfide bonds in the hair,
they are stronger than
Hydrogen or salt bonds.
are NOT broken by heat or water.these bonds create chemical side bonds
between the polypeptide chains,
CHEMICAL SOLUTIONS ARE REQURED TO CHANGE OR
permanent wave solution,quemical relaxer
These bonds broken by hydroxide relaxer ARE permanently broken and CAN NOT
NATURAL HAIR COLOR IS THE RESULT OF THE MELANIN PIGMENT
FOUND WITHIN THE CORTEX.
There are two different types of melanin:
:PROVIDES BROWN AND BLACK HAIR.
:PROVIDES REDS AND GINGER TO YELLOW AND LIGHT BLOND TONES.
The wave pattern of the hair refers to the amount of movement in the hair strand,and
is described as straight,wavy,curly, and extremely curly or coiled.
The numbers of hair on the head varies with the color of the hair.
Hair is found all over the body except on the palms,soles,lips and eyelids.
The two main types are VELLUS OR LANUGO HAIR
and TERMINAL HAIR.
VEllus or lanugo hair is the short,fine,soft hair found on the checks,forehead
and all areas of the body,IT almost never has a medulla or melanin.
IS coarse hair that has a medulla.the short,thick hairs that grow on the eyebrows and eyelashes are primary terminal hair.
SECONDARY TERMINAL HAIR:
Is the long hair found on the scalp,beard,chest,back,legs and pubic area that
replaces some vellus hair after puberty.
THE AVERAGE GROWTH OF HEALTHY HAIR ON THE SCALP IS ABOUT
1/2" per month.The growth of scalp hair occurs more rapidly between the ages
of 15 and 30 and declines between 50 and 60.
HAIR GROWTH IS NOT INCREASED BY SHAVING,TRIMMING,CUTTING OR BY THE application
NORMAL HAIR SHEDDING
it is normal to lose an average of 75 to 100 hairs per day.If you loss more hair than the
average it would indicate some problems.Eyebrows hairs and eyelashes are replaced every 4
to 5 months.
It is important when cutting the hair to consider the natural growth patterns.
:Is hair that grows in a circular or swirl pattern .Whorls are most often seen at the crown.
:is hair that stands straight up.
THE GROWTH CYCLES OF HAIR
The three phases are known as the
:or growth phase,new hair is produced.About 90% of scalp hair is growing in the anagen phase at any one time.this part last from 3 to 5 years,but can last as long as 10.
Is a transition period between the growth and resting phases of hair strand.
During this phase the hair bulb disappears ,the follicle is preparing for new growth by makin germ cells.This phase last fron one to 3 weeks.
TELOGEN:The resting phase
phase of the hair cycle.
The hair is either shed during this phase or remains in place until it is
pushed out by the growth of a new hair in the next anagen phase.
This phase last 3 to six months.
It is important that barbers have the ability to analyze
the condition of a client's hair;texture,density,porosity and elasticity.Practice using the senses of sight,hearing,smell and touch.
Refers to the degree of coarseness or finesess
individual hair strand .Hair texture is measured by
diameter of the hair strand
and could be
medium or fine
hair has the
and tends to be stronger than fine hair.
hair is the most common and is consider normal.
,is more fragile,easier to
process and more susceptible to damage from chemical
Measures the number of individual hair strands per
square inch of scalp area.It can be classified as thick,average,or thin
Is the ability of the hair to absorb moisture.The degree of porosity is directly related to the condition of the cuticle layer.
Is the ability of the hair to strech and return to its original lenght without
breaking.Wet hair with normal elasticity can strech up to
of its original
length and return to that length without breaking.
The technical term for abnormal hair loss is
TYPES OF ABNORMAL HAIR LOSS
;Is characterized by the sudden
falling out of hair in round patches that create
bald spots.It can occur on the scalp and elsewhere on the body.Also it is sugessted that is an autoimmune disease.The white blood cells stop hair growth during the anagen phase.
Is hair loss that occurs as a result of genetics,and
hormonal changes tha cause the terminal hair convert
to vellus hair.Androgenic alopecia can begin as early as the teens and is frequently seen by the age of 40.
Is the normal loss of scalp hair ocurring
in old age.
Is caused by syphilis.May affect the beard and eyebrow areas.The hair usually grows back.
HAIR LOSS TREATMENTS
Minoxidil is a topical treatment that has been proven to stimulate hair growth.
Minoxidil is a topical treatment.
Finasteride is an oral prescription medication FOR MEN ONLY; sold under the brand name Propecia.
In adition to the medical treatments described above,there are also several surgical options available.
DISORDERS OF THE SCALP
DANDRUFF:Is the precense of small,white scales that usually
appear on the scalp and hair,.
THE TWO PRINCIPAL TYPES OF DANDRUFF ARE
PITYRIASIS CAPITIS SIMPLEX
PITYRIASIS CAPITIS SIMPLEX
Is the technical term for classic Dandruff,caracterized by scalp
irritation,large flakes, and itchy scalp.
Is a severe form of dandruff that is characterized by
an accumulation of greasy or waxy scales mixed with sebum.
The scales can cause itching and irritation.Medical treatment is needed.
Is the medical term for
Is caused by fungal organisms and is characterized by itching,scales,
and sometimes painful circular lesions.All forms of tinea
are very contagious and can be easily transmitted from one person to another
Tinea sycosis or Tinea barbae;
Is a fungal infection ocurring over the bearded area of
Also known as tinea
or honeycomb ringworm.It is characterized by dry,sulfur-yellow, cuplike crust on the scalp having a peculiar,musty odor.Tinea favosa is
and should be referred to a
The two most common are
or head lice.The head louse is transmitted
FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER by contact with infested
hats,combs,brushes and other personal items.
Very contagious skin disease caused by the itch mite.A client
with this condition should be referred to a physician.
Infection in a form of folliculitis,characterized by the inflammation or infection of one or more hair follicles
;characterized by inflamed pustules in the bearded area of the face and neck that may have hairs growing through the pustule.STAPHYLOCOCCUS BACTERIA,most often cause the infection.
Also referred to as RAZOR BUMPS.caused by improper shaving or by broken hair below the skin surface that grows into the side of the follicle,causing irritation and swelling that cuts off oxygen to the bottom of the follicle.
It is a chronic
around the follicles of the beard and mustache areas.It may be contracted through the use of contaminated towels or implements or by contact with public resting areas.
A FURUNCLE OR
BACTERIAL INFECTION OF A HAIR FOLLICLE PRODUCING CONSTANT PAIN.PASTULE PERFORATED BY A HAIR.
ACUTE DEEP-SEATED BACTERIAL INFECTION IN THE SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
similar to a furuncle BUT LARGER
DISORSERS OF THE HAIR
Hair disorders are usually NON-CONTAGIOUS and include:
;technical term for
;Growth of terminal hair in those areas of the body that would normally grow ONLY vellus hair.Example;a mustache in a woman.
;technical term for
;Technical term for
; Technical term for
;Technical term for
.the hairs may split along any part of their lenght.