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4.4 OU מיחיד לקבוצות

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Transcript of 4.4 OU מיחיד לקבוצות

world
(human - technology)
Embodiment:
Analytic Epistemology
Individual -> Social
social aspects of knowledge and the epistemic states of groups and collective agents.
phenomenological analysis is intracranial.
post-phenomenology is pragmatic. for more on the differences,
group's intentions, knowledge, and actions.
possibility of analyzing collective agents
"they do not approach technologies as merely functional and instrumental objects, but as mediators of human experiences and practices."

They combine philosophical analysis with empirical investigation. Rather than "applying philosophical theories to technologies, the postphenomenological approach takes actual technologies and technological developments as a starting point for philosophical analysis.. Its philosophy of technology is in a sense a philosophy "from" technology


Technoscience and Postphenomenology: The Manhattan Papers, p. 190

postphenomenology -> agency, ethics
Ori Freiman
The Graduate Program in Science, Technology and Society
Bar-Ilan University
ori.freiman@biu.ac.il
From Individuals to Collective Agents:
Expanding Post-Phenomenology's Mediation Theory
The 16th Annual Conference of the Israeli Society for the History and Philosophy of Sciences
Group Ontology: Non-Humans as Quasi-Agents
April 4th, 2017
in brief
functional and instrumental objects
mediators of human experiences and practices
Technologies
Don Ihde's (1991) relations:
Hermeneutic:
human
(technology - world)
Background:
human
human
human
Analytic Epistemology
Individual -> Social
social aspects of knowledge and the epistemic states of groups and collective agents.
Noah Efron
Boaz Miller
Duncan Pritcahrd FRSE
Supervised by:
My dissertation's main idea
Quasi-Agents
STSers
Advantages over current approaches
to/for
knowledge dissemination
Bayesian Epistemology
Social Epistemology
Process Reliabilism
Virtue Reliabilism
Design Ethics
Agency
Philosophy of technology
Kinds of knowledge
Post-Phenomenology
Philosophy of Sciece
Realism/Anti-Realism
Distributed Cognition
Trust
What are the objects of trust?
Human and non-human debate
back to Agency, and Group Ontology
Social Epistemology to Technological Mediation Theory:
use SE analyses concepts such as trust, testimony to the mediation relations
Technological Mediation Theory to Social Epistemology:
Translate insights about agency, design, and ethics
Miller & Freiman
Analytic Philosophy
Post-Phenomenology
Social Epistemology
Trust
Science
Non-Humans
types of groups are relevant to the epistemology of science
-scientific research teams
-scientific specialty communities
-the scientific community as a whole
Group Ontology, Agency
social aspects of knowledge and the epistemic states of groups and collective agents.
scientists trust the conventions of a community, which are not reducible to the beliefs of an individual, hence the entire community is an object of trust (Wilholt 2016)
when does a collection of individuals form an entity that is more than just the mereological sum of its constituent person?

under what conditions does it know (or believe etc.)?

can we regard scientific knowledge as an epistemic state of a social entity we call science?
(Bird)
human
Alterity:
Composite:
human
Introduce my work
Social Epistemology; Philosophy of Technology; Philosophy of Science
(Analytic Philosophy)
Embodiment: (human-technology) -> world [glasses]
Hermeneutic: human -> (technology-world) [thermometer]
Alterity: human -> technology (world) [ATM]
Background: human (technology/world) [air conditioner]
University of Twente, November 2016
Augmentation: (human-technology) -> world -> (technology -> world)
Interaction: human <-> technology (world) [alterity]
Cyborg/Fusion: (human/technology) -> world [brain implant]
Composite/Immersion: human -> (technology -> world) [radio telescope]
Internalism/Externalism debate
Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind
Extended Cognition (Active Externalism)

Artefacts without agency
Social Network
Group
World
Technology
Human
Human
Group (Human , Human , Technology , Technology ) <-> World
1
n
1
n
Human
1
2
n
Technology
Technology
1
2
n
Analytic Philosophy
Development of SE (goldman's 3 meanings)
Values & Agency (philosophy of technology)

Social Epistemology -> Distributed Cognition [knowledge, testimony, trust]
group testimony tolefsen
Phenomenolgy -> Social Values
TOC
design
| agency
| ethics
Mediation Theory
Theories about the role of technolgoies
Formalization
technology
world
human
()
->
/
group
Giere
Knorr-Cetina
Baird
Galison
Rothbart
Akrich, Latour
script
inscriptions
prescribe actions, by the context of usage
functionality, by designers
delegations
design / usage
Phenomenology - "philosophical analysis of the structure of the relations between humans and their life-world" (Verbeek 2016)
Heidegger's (1927) analysis of the role of tools
readiness-to-hand
present-at-hand
frameworks of vocabolaries
they are not neutral instruments but play an active role in the relationship between humans and the life-world.
Intentionality
Dual meanings
aboutness
intentions
philosophy of language & mind
intensionality (with an 's')
"technological intentionality"
Ihde
programs of action
translations
of
transformation of perception
Feenberg
Beijker, Pinch & Hughes
SCOT

Technological Momentum
Closed-in Hardness
(group's use context)
Closing-out Obduracy
(resort to other technologies)
Co-production (Jasanoff's)
Relevant Social Group
Interpretative Flexibility
Closure and Stabilisation
Unit of Analysis
Artifact
System
Socio-Technological Ensemble
Technological Culture
Concepts
"Thing Knowledge"
Baird (2004) argues that (some) scientific instruments constitute in and by themselves objective material knowledge, to which he refers as thing knowledge. Thing knowledge inter alia expresses the knowledge of its designers. According to this view, technological knowledge is
not belief-based, but thing-based
Hacking
"epistemology of a spectometer"
Ackermann
Borgmann
van Fraassen
Composite/Immersion:
Group (Human , Human , Technology , Technology ) <-> World
1
n
1
n
technology
technology
human
human
human
technology
:
e.g.
technology
world
human
(
->
->
)
Knowledge
Agency
Ethics
Philosophy of
Science/Epistemology

Influences ontology of
group belief
and
group knowledge
(Wray 2006, Bird and Lackey 2015; Wilholt 2016)
Influences ethical consideration regarding
who is an author
and
who is accountable
for a scientific paper?
(Kukla; Sismomdo)
Ethnographic field studies of distributed scientific research (Wagenknecht)
Tacit knowledge (Collins)
Moral Trust (Frost-Arnold; Rolin; Andersen; Gerken)
Game theory (Blais)
Influence on
Trust
(Miller & Freiman, forthcoming)
Influence on
Testimony
Philosophy of Mind
Extended mind (Palermos; Carter)
Robots (Wheeler)
Orthodox views
Non-Orthodox views
only persons participate
in the act of testimony
Advocated,
inter alia
,
by
sociologists of knowledge
(e.g. Collins & Kusch 1998; Bloor 1999; Collins 2010),
and by
most philosophical accounts of testimony
(Coady 1992, 268; Lackey 2008, 189).
Only testimony-based beliefs
originate from epistemic subjects
who are "susceptible to full-blooded normative assessment" (Goldberg 2012, 191).
It is possible to receive
testimony from instruments
Defended mostly by proponents of
Actor-Network Theory
, primarily
Latour
, who claims that testimonies of instruments may be
“even more reliable than [those of] ordinary mortals” (1993, 23).
Also advocated, on different grounds, by
a minority of philosophers
(e.g. Humphreys 2009).
Recorded phone message (Green 2006, 27; 2008)
Bloor, David. 1999. "Anti-Latour", Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 30(1): 81-112.
Coady, C. Anthony. J. 1992. Testimony: A Philosophical Study. Oxford University Press.
Collins, Harry M, & Kusch, Martin. 1999. The Shape of Actions: What Humans and Machines Can Do. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Collins, Harry M. 2010. “Humans not instruments”, Spontaneous Generations: A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science 4(1): 138-147.
Goldberg, Sanford C. 2012. "Epistemic extendedness, testimony, and the epistemology of instrument-based belief", Philosophical Explorations: An International Journal for the Philosophy of Mind and Action 15(2): 181-197.
Kusch, Martin. 2002. Knowledge by Agreement: The Programme of Communitarian Epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lackey, Jennifer. 2008. Learning from Words: Testimony as a Source of Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Humphreys, Paul. 2009. “Network Epistemology”, Episteme 6(2): 221-229.
Latour, Bruno. 1993. We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Green, Christopher R. 2006. The Epistemic Parity of Testimony, Memory, and Perception. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Notre Dame.
Green, Christopher R. 2008. “The Epistemology of Testimony”, In Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, (eds.) B. Dowden & J. Fieser

Orthodox views of trust, as reduced
to humans behind the technologies
Reliabilism
: Process or Virtue?
Distributed Cognition
Philosophy
Technology
Technological Artifacts with Good Virtues?
Artificial Ethical Agents?
Technologies Embedded with (social) Values
Reduction of Accountability
Value-Sensitive Design
Tonkens, Ryan. 2012. Out of Character: On the Creation of Virtuous Machines. Ethics and Information Technology 14(2): 137-149.

Van de Poel, Ibo and Peter Kroes. 2014. Can Technology Embody Values? In The Moral Status of Technical Artefacts, edited by Peter Kroes and Peter-Paul Verbeek, 103-124. Dordrecht: Springer.

Flanagan, Mary, Daniel C. Howe and Helen Nissenbaum. 2008. Embodying Values in Technology: Theory and Practice. In Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, edited by Jeroen van den Hoven and John Weckert, 322-353. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Carter, J. Adam & S. Orestis Palermos. 2017. The Ethics Of Extended Cognition: Is Having Your Computer Compromised a Personal Assault? Journal of the American Philosophical Association, forthcoming.
Philosophy of Law
design
| agency
| ethics
Mediation Theory
Formalization
Collaboration
Distributed Epistemic Labour
Group Ontology
Preception & Praxis -> Social Values & Policy Making
Post Phenomenology
Individual
STS
"
STS could benefit from a reconnection with philosophical theory
, in order to develop new ways to undestand the social roles of science and technology [...] new empirical approaches are needed to the ways in which
technologies help to shape knowledge, morality, etc..
" (Verbeek 2016, p. 189)
"In order to develop a full understanding of processes of mediation, we should not only study 'what things do', but also
how humans give meaning to these mediations
[...]" (190)
"
In STS
, therefore, the phenomenon of
technological mediation has remained an underdeveloped theme
, while the
postphenomenological
framework to investigate technological mediations
is in need of methodology and expansion
" (191)
"technology mediated human beings" (192)
"In order to develop a theory of mediation [...] the postphenomenological approach should connect itself explicitly to the main subfields of philosophy"
(Verbeek, p. 192-3)
"[mediation theory needs to] establish closer connections between the philosophy of technology and other subfields of philosophy"
(Verbeek p. 193)
technologies create the phenomena we investigate with technologies
of
Design Ethics | Values | Agency
Post phenomenology in brief
Theories about the role of technologies
Technological Mediation Theory (individual, technology, world)
Technological Mediation Theory: Groups
From Epistemology to Social Epistemology
Groups as a bridge between various fields
Ori Freiman
The Graduate Program in Science, Technology and Society
Bar-Ilan University
ori.freiman@biu.ac.il
From Individuals to Collective Agents:
Expanding Post-Phenomenology's Mediation Theory
The 16th Annual Conference of the Israeli Society for the History and Philosophy of Sciences
April 4th, 2017
Thank you!
focus on the mediating role of technologies
leaves a place for a social context
focus on the mediating role of technologies
leaves a place for a social context
Focus on:
Realism/Anti Realism Debate
Measurement & Callibration
Technologies as Material Knowledge
Distributed Cognition
do not focus on the mediating role
post-phenomenology
Analytic Philosophy of Science
epistemology
philosophy of technology
Design
Ethics
Agency
[...]
Group belief
Trust
Testimony
Distributed Cognition
Design Ethics
Values & Technology
Agency
[...]
STS
Humans+Technologies Hybrid
Aggregating algorithms + social values
e.g. reputation systems for
movies, restaurants, hotels, doctors, lecturers, humans.....
Full transcript