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Presentation for Cross Border Governance
Transcript of Presentation for Cross Border Governance
"Implementation of the Action Plan will
significantly advance the approximation of Moldovan legislation, norms and standards to those of the European Union." (ENP Action Plan for Moldova, 2004) How does the EU attempt to re-shape these institutions so that they adhere more closely to "European" standards? Conditionality The EU offers economic incentives in exchange for modernization, harmonization, reform and... ... also diplomatic and technical support to solve Moldova's border conflict with Transnistria (the EU's worst worry in Moldova) "The so-called
Transnistrian Moldovan Republic, represents the typical post-Soviet amalgam
of politics, security services, business and crime, if in an atypically
uncompromising form." (Sherr, Moldova's Crisis: More than a local difficulty, 2009) "One of the key objectives of this action plan will be to further support a viable
solution to the Transnistria conflict" (ENP Action Plan for Moldova, 2004) Why is Transnistria so important? Because it represents a direct confrontation between the EU and Russia Transnistria (as Georgia) represents a clash between two models of imperial influence and conflict resolution. One based principally on military threats and coercion and another one chiefly based on economic leverage, institutional replication and gradual osmosis. The objectives of the ENP are kept deliberately vague
"The level of ambition of the relationship will depend on the degree of Moldova’s commitment to common values as well as its capacity to implement jointly agreed priorities. The pace of progress of the relationship will acknowledge fully Moldova’s efforts and concrete achievements in meeting those commitments" (ENP Acion Plan for Moldova, 2004) "EU financial assistance for Moldova will be available to support the actions identified in the present document" (ENP Action Plan for Moldova, 2004). ? What's the reason for this vagueness? The EU is an unfinished project In any case, the EU is a multitude of contradicting ideas regarding what to do with its periphery. This is evident in the ENP In the future, maybe it could look more like neo-medieval empire?
"The objective of the ENP, launched in the context of the 2004 enlargement round is to share the EU´s stability, security and prosperity with neighbouring countries including Moldova, in a way that is distinct from EU membership." (ENP Strategy Paper for Moldova, 2007-2013) On the one hand, it seems clear that... Then again... What theoretical lens might best capture the way in which the EU is asserting influence over its neighborhood? Could it be... "Independent, or but loosely connected provinces, with separate interests, laws, governments, and systems of taxation, became lumped together into one nation, with one government, one code of laws, one national class-interest, one frontier, and one customs-tariff." (Marx & Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848) "Implementation of the Action Plan will significantly advance the approximation of Moldovan legislation, norms and standards to those of the European Union." (ENP Action Plan for Moldova, 2004)
"Tthe EU Border Assistance Mission (EUBAM), which contributed to improving migration and border management and whose mandate was extended for a second time." (ENP Progress Report for Moldova, 2010)
"The Customs Service of the Republic of Moldova (MDCS) is continuing the implementation
of its 2009-2011 Institutional Development Plan based on EU standards." (ENP Progress Report for Moldova, 2010) "Capitalist production as proper mass production depends on consumers from peasant and artisan strata in the old countries, and consumers from all countries; but for technical reasons, it cannot exist
without the products of these strata and countries. So there must develop right from the start an exchange relationship between capitalist production and the non-capitalist milieu, where capital not only finds the possibility of realizing surplus value in hard cash
for further capitalization, but also receives various commodities to extend production, and finally wins new proletarianized labour forces by disintegrating the non-capitalist forms of production. " (Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital - An Anti-Critique, 1915) The ENP could be seen as an explotation of the "old" countries with undeveloped capitalist systems "Overseas, it begins with the subjugation and destruction of traditional communities, the world historical act of the birth of capital, since then the constant epiphenomenon of accumulation. Through destruction of the primitive barter relations in these
countries, European capital opens the doors to commodity exchange and production, transforms the population into customers of capitalist commodities and hastens its own accumulation by making mass raids on their natural resources and accumulated treasures." (Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital - An Anti-Critique, 1915) The EU creates a domination discourse that portrays its surroundings as inferior, underdeveloped and in need of a civilizatorian mission. What about Foucault? Luxemburg? Maps are a good example Even in this well-intentioned map one can see the EU's dominant discourse.
The EU is diversity, light and civilization. The rest is filled with wilderness, exoticism and underdevelopment The first map is similar... Old members belong to the top layer, below them are the new members since 2004 (who are like the new rich in the EU: they belong to the club but still lack the sophistication of old members. On the next layer are the candidate countries and below them the undifferentiated rest of uncivilized Europeans (not to mention northern Africa which is painted in a grey colour that might express either lack of belonging or complete strangeness) The Action Plan for Moldova acknowledges that the EU wants to be the dominant partner and wants to shape Moldova to its own image Besides maps, "Eurospeak" is a good example of the EU's dominance through discursive techniques It could be agued that the EU plays an enabler or activator role: It tells Moldova which international legal instruments and regulations to adopt and offers economic rewards in exchange but without any coercion The EU offers its political leverage to mediate with Russia and Ukraine a solution to the Transnistria issue So, in brief, what is the ENP? A common concept in Eurospeak is "European standards", which blends all the differences among EU countries into an imagined common character. One must keep in mind that the EU wants its neighbours not to behave like itself but like the idealized image of itself What about Germany, France or Italy? They don't have the best of records when it comes to respecting minorities' rights or freedom of speech and press Which are the biggest shortcomings that the EU sees in Moldovan institutions?
Human rights violations against immigrants, opposition members and demonsntrators
Lack of freedom of speech and press The ENP is like a massive exercise in cognitive disonance or hypocritical self-righteousness "European standards" is a concept that does not refer to actual EU standards but to those that the EU leaders and bureaucrats would ideally like the Union to uphold Don't do what I do but what I tell you to do The ENP documents express a complex arrange of aspirations and visions that come from different sources with divergent and even opposing incentives and objectives The ENP is an extension of the EU's governmentality: Biopolitics It includes provisions regarding the implementation of statistics and border and migration controls What about Liberal intergovernmentalism and multi-level governance? "The enlargement of the European Union on 1 May 2004 has brought a historical shift for the Union
in political, geographic and economic terms, further reinforcing the political and economic
interdependence between the EU and Moldova." (ENP Action Plan for Moldova, 2004) "The EU Moldova Action Plan is a political document
laying out the strategic objectives of the cooperation between Moldova and the EU" (ENP Action Plan for Moldova, 2004) From a liberal intergovernmentalist perspective, the ENP is not about domination but about building interdependence. Through this lens, the EU asks Moldova to implement reforms in exchange for economic, technical and diplomatic support The EU as a neo-colonial empire? From this perspective the EU accomodates difference within an overarching general framework. Its purpose is more about conflict resolution than about conquest but it implies a patronizing view of the barbarians. Elitist EU This layered map is a good example Because they are inferior, Moldovan institutions have to imitate those of the EU to improve Or a Westphalian state? Who knows? So, enlargement for countries involved in the ENP is out of the question Marx? However, it is worth asking whether the EU exerts such a sheer dominance as the Foucauldian approach would suggest. Governing is a sheer act of efficient conflict resolution: “Governing has to reconcile the competing preferences of self-interested individuals in an institutionalised system of peaceful conflict resolution.” (Kohler-Koch & Eising, 2005, p. 21) “... there is a variety of national traditions accounting for quite divergent practical experience. Second, the EU as a ‘polity’ is still in its formative phase, and its very ‘nature’ — not to mention its finalité politique—is still contested.” (Kohler-Koch & Eising, 2005, p. 20) The EU never imposes governance in the strict sense of the word. (Kohler-Koch & Eising, 2005, p. 26) And it's based on interdependence It's about cooperation, not imposition So, maybe the ENP represents a step beyond liberal intergovernmentalism? Something like... Maybe Cosmopolitanism? Human rights and environmental law are the basis of a nascent cosmopolitanism. (Held, Cosmopolitanism: Ideas, Realities and Deficits, p. 313) The ENP Action Plan for Moldova has many provisions aimed at the improvement of human rights protections and the promotion of sustainable development Besides, "cosmopolitanism does imply a particular kind of mobility: the ability of individuals to cross and re-cross borders. Importantly, this view of the relationship between borders and cosmopolitanism assumes not borderlessness but a proliferation of borders." (Rumford, Cosmopolitan Spaces, p. 53) Cosmopolitanism as a replication of borders If we take this at face value, then the EU in general and the ENP, more specifically, are cosmopolitan projects because they are making borders proliferate First with enlargement Now with the ENP However, according to Beitz, Pogge & Barry, the EU cannot be a cosmopolitan state because it doesn't meet the criteria of:
Impartial reasoning (Held, Cosmopolitanism: Ideas, Realities and Deficits, p. 311) So, could it be an empire? Neither the EU nor the ENP could be considered cosmopolitan projects because they are not based on the belief that all individuals have equal moral value The EU is a neo-medieval empire that uses Foucauldian discourses of cosmopolitanism to promote Marxist practices of exploitation which create interdependence According to Jan Zielonka the EU is a neo-medieval empire and Böröcz suggests that the imperial thinking that used to characterize Europeans has not faded away but is still latent "A glance at the list of states that were the world's major colonial powers only two or three generations ago, included in the data presented in Table 1—Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom—should suffice to support the proposition that colonial history is a crucial component of the social imaginaries of those societies." (Böröcz, Empire's New Clothes, p. 13) So, through which lens can one see a more clear picture of the EU and the ENP? In "The Borgesian Border", Kramsch contends that "The inner/outer border dialectic haunting the ENP frontier today [...] relates to its ambivalent and unresolved relationship to eastward enlargement." Maybe through a combination of all theoretical lenses For example, one could say that... Statement for discussion Could the ENP lead to an unintended enlargement of the EU? Why? We believe that the ENP process is deliberately kept separate from EU membership not because they are mutally exclusive but because the EU intends to keep it vague enough to remain selective in the future (e.g. maybe accepting Moldova, but not Morocco). But that's just us. So, maybe the ENP is just another charade of the bourgeoisie's executive committee? The ENP is part of the EU's imperial model The ENP is about cultural destruction, pillage and domination Lack of coherence and source of vagueness
"Europeanization is conceived as a kind of graduation from Eastern Europe to Europe, a process in which the accession countriesmust prove that they are 'willing and able' to internalize Western norms (Schimmelfennig, 2000: 111)." (Kuus Thus, Europe's eastern expansion and the reinscription of otherness in East-Central Europe, 2004, p. 477) According to Mignolo, coloniality thinking exerts dominance by negating recognition, difference or dismissing its significance The ENP belongs to an imperial tradition but practiced through other means. It is not violent or imposed like in the past, but despite all the talk about "negotiation" and "cooperation" there is no hint of recognition. Mission civilisatrice Room for manoeuvre Why not?