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Biosynthesis of the Glutamate Class of Amino Acids

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Kayla Soliday

on 2 July 2015

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Transcript of Biosynthesis of the Glutamate Class of Amino Acids

Pathway is located in the Cytoplasm of a cell
It is a branched pathway that leads off of the Krebs Cycle (4)
This matabolic pathway's purpose is to convert alpha- ketoglutorate into glutamine and proline
Biomolecules involved are amino acids (proteins)
The overall pathway is anabolic and absorbs energy
Background
Biosynthesis of the Glutamate Class of Amino Acids
Alpha-Ketoglutarate
Glutamate Dehydrogenase
Glutamate
Converts Glutamate into alpha- semialdehyde
Coupled reaction
ATP + H + NADPH is reduced to ADP + NADP + Pi is oxidized
Exergonic
Enzyme is acetylglutamate kinase
Glutamate Kinase Dehydrongenase
Alpha-Semialdehyde
Spontaneous
Delta-Pyrrolidine
5-carboxylate
Starting reactant
Functional groups: carboxilic acid and ketone
Has a 5 carbon backbone
Turns alpha-ketiglutarate into glutamate
Is a coupled reaction
The H + NADPH + NH4 is being reduced and the NADP is oxidized
Uses a mitochondrial enzyme
carbons 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 remain in tact
Key Intermediate
Functional Groups: Amine, Amide Carboxilic Acid
Found in brain cells
Used to transmit electric pulses
Glutamate Synthetase
Changes Glutamate into Glutamine
Coupled reaction
ATP + NH4 to ADP + Pi + H is exergonic
Requires energy ATP
Builds Protein
Glutamine
Final Product
Functional Groups: Amine, Amide, and Carboxylic Acid
Still has the original 5 carbons
Used in our immune system to remove access ammonia
Key Intermediate
Functional Groups: Ester, Aldehyde
Contains the same original 5 carbons
Converts Alpha-semialdehyde into Delta-pyrrolidine 5- carboxylate.
Looses a water molecule
Dehydration Reaction
The carbons then bond to form a ring
Key Intermediate
Funtional Group: Amine
Protein
Pyrrolidine Carboxylate Reductase
Converts Delta-Pyrrolidine 5-carboylate to proline
Coupled Reaction: H + NADPH is reduced and NADP is oxidized which is exergonic
enzyme used is a reductase
Proline
End Product
Functional Groups: Amine and Carboxylic Acid
Has all 5 original carbons
DNA encoding amino acid
Produces collagen and cartilage
Not Enough?
If a cell is not producing enough Glutamine then the organism will feel nerve, muscle and joint pain.

It is given to cancer pateints undergoing chemotherapy and bone marrow transplants. Used to counteract the side effects of cancer medications and promote recovery.
Not Enough?
Endurance runners often dont produce enough proline. With out enough they experience joint and muscle pain. They should take a suppliment to avoid loosing muscle mass and pain.

It keeps skin tight and prevents sagging and wrinkles. Often found in hair and skin products. Found in anti aging creams.

The best source of proline is found in meat, eggs and milk.
Full transcript