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Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction
Transcript of Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction
Patterns By: Melissa Spall
Brittany Nielsen Enhancing Vocabulary
Instruction Authentic Texts Understand the purpose of learning letter-sounds
Daily reading and writing activities Texts and Phonics Begins with an experience
Teaching material for instruction
Children are writers as well as readers
Variety of phonic and structural word patterns Dictated Texts Bridge between word recognition and comprehension
Quick, accurate, expressive
Building fluency: use predictable stories
Poetry Texts and Reading Fluency Word Sorts
Categories vowel sounds, letter patterns, etc.
Use author’s copy to make individual versions
Thinking and writing sight words
Careful reading and listening strategies
Other Independent Activities
Making their own books
Fosters positive attitudes towards reading
Helps develop good concepts of themselves as readers
Conventions about print, acquire sight word vocabulary, word recognition, fluency Shared Book Experience
Enlarged version of text
Allows children to see the words being read
Word study activities
Read several times to children
Read in a choral setting
Invite children to read the text alone
Break down parts of sentences, phrases, words, letters, and letter combinations
Conventions of print
Allows children to discover relationships between parts and the whole
Word learning, fluency Using Authentic Text Nursery Rhymes and Poems
Incidental word learning
In classroom and outside of school
Attend to shapes, colors, and logos
May be too indirect for precise word learning
Functional print leads to knowing the value of written words Simple language patterns-
Do not represent the natural oral language they hear in daily life.
Vocabulary repetition is unnatural.
Pattern Books and predictable texts-
Contain distinct language patterns
Naturally repetitive language
Use rhythm or rhyme
Enjoyable way for children to play with sounds, words, phrases, and sentences Authentic Texts enable the beginning reader to predict, sample, and confirm. (what all mature readers do) Pattern Books
Predictable, easy for children to catch on to the pattern that is used in the book
Repetitive language and/or repeating episodes
Most are available in big book format, little books are sought after for independent reading
Songs, Finger Plays, and Other Rhymes
develop concepts about print
learning sight words
learn number words by sight
jump rope chants Types of Authentic Texts Word parts that are derived from Greek, Latin,
or other languages that are found in English words.
Best taught after students have developed basic word recognition strategies and affixes.
Word walls, student journals, use in speech and writing, word sorts, games, etc. Teaching Derivational Patterns Attached to existing words to alter their basic meanings, prefixes come at the beginning of words and suffixes at the end of words.
1) Prefixes such as un-, re-, in-, im-, il-, ir-, dis-, en-, em-, etc)
2) Suffixes such as –s, -es, -ed, -ing, -ly, -er, -or, -ion, -tion, - ation,
-ition, -able, -ible
Why teach affixes?
Expands students’ strategies for decoding unknown words
Expands student’s strategies for determining the meanings of unknown words. AFFIXES Teaching Advanced Word Patterns Invent new words using after
understanding affixes and derivational patterns.
Used in poetry writing Encouraging Creativity Teaching affixes can begin in 1st grade with suffixes that denote number.
Relate to content areas.
Some affixes need to be revisited throughout the elementary years.
Use an eclectic approach when teaching affixes by using word walls, spelling lists, word sorts, cloze activities, games
Teaching Affixes References Cohen, M. T., Johnson, H. L., (2011). Improving the Acquisition of Novel Vocabulary Through the Use of Imagery Interventions. Early Childhood Educational Journal, 38, pp. 357-366.
Feezell, G. (2012). Robust Vocabulary Instruction In A Readers' Workshop. The Reading Teacher, 66(3), 233-237.doi:10.1002/TRTR.01087
Fien, H., Santoro, L., Baker, S. K., Park, Y., Chard, D. J., Williams, S., & Haria, P., (2011). Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds With Small Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms. School Psychology Review, 40 (2), pp. 307-318.
Neuman, S. B., , & Roskos, K. (2012). More Than Teachable Moments: Enhancing Oral Vocabulary Instruction in Your Classroom. The Reading Teacher, 66(1), 63-67.doi:10.1002/TRTR.01104
O’Leary, P. M., Cockburn, M. K., Powell, D. R., & Diamond, K. E., (2010). Head Start Teacher’s Views of Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge Instruction. Early Childhood Educational Journal, 38, pp. 187-195.
Rasinski, T. V., & Padak, N. D. (2008). From Phonics to Fluency (2nd ed.). Boston, MA. Word Map Graphic Organizers Taught both explicitly and incidentally
Definitions, context, and concept learning
Word rich environment- books, word walls, community, home Teaching a Word Well Narrative and Expository Texts
Before -, during-, and after- reading components with integrated explicit comprehension and vocabulary instruction
Greek/Latin roots Texts/Activities Builds background knowledge
Teaches vocabulary explicitly
Reviews text structure
Models comprehension strategies in text
Robust vocabulary instruction Teacher Read Alouds Listening- to understand words we hear
Speaking- words used in speaking
Reading- presented in text
Writing- written words Types of Vocabulary Building Vocabulary Teacher provides a student-friendly definition or example.
Students generate their own descriptions or examples.
Students make a visual representation
Students keep a notebook of vocabulary words
Frequently engaged in games and activites that reinforce and extend knowledge of words learned
Students revisit words periodically
Students report when they have heard the words outside the classroom. Differentiated Instruction Using objects to teach opposites
Use of synonyms
Free play periods (younger children)
Children’s interests Other teachable moments Developing Vocabulary Instruction in Elementary Classrooms. How does Vocabulary relate to Reading Comprehension? Vocabulary instruction has greater potential to have a measurable effect on comprehension when exposure to rich and varied vocabulary is complemented with direct and sequential instruction that emphasizes accuracy of word knowledge, fluency of accessing word meanings, and rich examples of a word’s application. Pre-Kindergarten Pre-Kindergarten programs have not fully closed the gap between low-income and middle-income children regarding phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, two key predictors of later reading success. Why the Need? As early as age three, children with strong vocabularies know approximately 600 more word meanings than children with weak vocabularies. By the end of 2nd grade, the children with strong vocabularies know between 4,000 and 8,000 more word meanings than students with weak vocabularies. There is a strong relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. This is why it is important to identify children in the early grades with low language and vocabulary levels and intervene in ways designed to improve their vocabulary knowledge and as a result their subsequent reading comprehension outcomes. Dual Coding Students are given a vocabulary word, the definition, and then are asked to create an image of that word in their heads and then draw it on paper.
This is important because the learner is actively involved.
Tier 1: words found in common language
Tier 2: complex words found frequently in text
Tier 3: complex words not found frequently; often pertaining to special subjects Three Tiers of Vocabulary