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on 13 January 2015

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What is Autocratic leadership?
Autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian leadership, is a leadership style characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. Autocratic leaders typically make choices based on their own ideas and judgments and rarely accept advice from followers. Autocratic leadership involves absolute, authoritarian control over a group.
Impact of autocratic leadership on management
In autocratic leadership the leader is like a dictator. The leader prefers to do the work himself so there is no or little output from the team members and this makes the members lose interest. The leader does all the decision making hence the employees feel not needed this has a very negative impact on the management. the goals will not be met, conflicts between the members. This then leads to low productivity rate and slowing down of business.
How effective leadership can lead to successful change in an organization
effective leadership is very important in an organization. for instance a company is working on a very important project which needs to be finished as soon as possible. so for quick implementation from the employees the leader needs to be very strict with the deadline and make sure all employees are working. this will lead to reached goals and high productivity.
Maslow's motivational theory
Abraham Maslow said that humans are motivated by five essential needs. He formed a pyramid showing these needs which he called the 'hierarchy of needs'.
At the bottom of the pyramid are basic needs, those that motivate people to work food and shelter. Once these needs are met through pay, individuals want safety and security through, for example, good job conditions. Social needs refer to the need to belong, to be part of a group. Self-esteem may arise from a promotion. Right at the top is Self fulfilment - the area for creativity, challenge and interest. Maslow suggested that achieving one level motivates us to achieve the next.
Herzberg's motivational theory and how it is used in work place.
In 1959 Frederick Herzberg developed the Two-Factor theory of motivation. His research showed that certain factors were the true motivators or satisfiers. Hygiene factors, in contrast, created dissatisfaction if they were absent or inadequate. Dissatisfaction could be prevented by improvements in hygiene factors but these improvements would not alone provide motivation.
Herzberg showed that to truly motivate an employee a business needs to create conditions that make him or her feel fulfilled in the workplace.

Insure hygiene factors are sufficient enough so employees don'tbecome demotivated.
Insure work is rewarding and challenging to motivate employees to work harder.
Continually develop employees to keep motivation high.
Reward and Recognise high achieving employees.
If possible Rotate employees roles to keep Job interest high.
Insure employees have training resources to continually develop themselves.
Kendra Cherry. 2015. what is autocratic leadership?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/f/autocratic-leadership.htm. [Accessed 05 January 15].
Maslow and Herzberg - Motivational theory in practice at Tesco - Tesco | Tesco case studies, videos, social media and information | Business Case Studies. 2015. Maslow and Herzberg - Motivational theory in practice at Tesco - Tesco | Tesco case studies, videos, social media and information | Business Case Studies. [ONLINE] Available at: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/tesco/motivational-theory-in-practice-at-tesco/maslow-and-herzberg.html#axzz3Nzep4uFo. [Accessed 05 January 2015].
Aswin Chabbra, (2013), maslow's hierarchy of needs [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analystforum.com/forums/water-cooler/91328451 [Accessed 05 January 15].
management is a journey. (2014). Improving Motivation with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. [Online Video]. 10 October. Available from: [Accessed: 05 January 2015].
Jamiee Whitehead.2014.Herzberg''s two factor theory-Appliying it to the workplace.[ONLINE] Available at http://blog.hrsmart.eu/2014/09/herzbergs-two-factor-theory-applying-it.html. [Accessed 05 January 2015]
MANIE BOSMAN, (2011), Start With Herzberg if Motivation Lacks at Work [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.strategicleadershipinstitute.net/news/start-with-herzberg-if-motivation-lacks-at-work/ [Accessed 05 January 15].
Democratic leadership
this is an operating system applied by the management of a business, where the manager asks for suggestion and encourages participations of the employees in the decision making. Democratic leadership is the opposite definition of autocratic leadership, in which the employees are entitled to share authority, responsibility and decision making with their managers. This motivates the employees self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation.
Pg. 235 Louis E. Boone, 2011.
Democratic leadership bring the best of the business, because it exploits on the employees skills and talent by letting them share and review their opinions, which makes the organization creative
This system encourage the employee involvement engagement and participation to business which can improve the business creativeness
It brings co-operation within the employees and the management, and decision making as a group to share the responsibility for making the decisions, making changes and deadlines
It allows the leader to delegates a great deal of the work, letting others having a role in their portion of work they take on.
It brings a productive and evolving workforce

It make team members dedicated to their work because they feel that they have had contributions in, not just what was done but how it was done.
It brings completion among the team members, and this will make the employees more creative, productive and work harder to be more credited.
It result to loyal employees who are willing to work hard to deliver result

McGregor developed two theories of human behavior at work: and explains the X & Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side of Enterprise'. Theory X and theory Y are still referred to, usually in the field of management and motivation, and at the same time as more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, McGregor’s X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques.
McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory X he gets Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible, Individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory Y to get individuals who do not dislike work, Individuals who seek responsibility (if they are motivated). Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop.
The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organizational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment.

Vroom expectancy theory
Firstly, what is expectancy in this theory? Is the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance i.e. if I work harder this will be better. This is affected by such things as: Having the right resources available (e.g. raw materials, time), having the right skills to do the job, having the necessary support to get the job done (e.g. supervisor support, or correct information on the job).
Vroom's expectancy theory explains that human behavior outcomes from conscious choices among choices whose purpose it is to exploit pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized and explained that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He also stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this.
(yourcoach.be, 2014)
Instrumentality is the belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received. The point of which a first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome i.e. if I do a good job, there is something in it for me.
Valence is the importance that the individual places upon the expected outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it. For example, if someone is mainly motivated by money, he or she might not value offers of additional time off. Valence measures how much an individual needs the costs of completing the task. If task completion, leads to an outcome desired by the individual, than valence is positive. Examples of positive valence are praise, promotion, recognition and pay rises.

Contemporary Business. 14 Edition. Wiley.
(businessballs.com, 2014)
(yourcoach.be, 2014)
Transformational leader
This is probably the most admired of the leadership styles. Why? Because the transformational leader makes the right things happen.
It was James MacGregor Burns who first described this style of leadership. The transformational leader taps into his people’s needs and values, inspires them with new possibilities and raises their confidence, conviction and desire to achieve a common, moral purpose.
Of the seven leadership styles, transformational leadership stands out for being centred on a long-term, high moral purpos

Transactional leadership, also known as managerial leadership, focuses on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. This theory of leadership was first described in by sociologist Max Weber, and further explored by Bernard M. Bass in the early 1980s.

Basic Assumptions of Transactional Leadership
People perform their best when the chain of command is definite and clear.
Workers are motivated by rewards and punishments.
Obeying the instructions and commands of the leader is the primary goal of the followers.
Subordinates need to be carefully monitored to ensure that expectations are met.

how transformational leadership works

In transactional leadership, rewards and punishments are contingent upon the performance of the followers. The leader views the relationship between managers and subordinates as an exchange - you give me something for something in return. When subordinates perform well, they receive some type of reward. When they perform poorly, they will be punished in some way.
Rules, procedures and standards are essential in transactional leadership. Followers are not encouraged to be creative or to find new solutions to problems. Research has found that transactional leadership tends to be most effective in situations where problems are simple and clearly-defined.
While transactional leadership can be effective in some situations, it is generally considered an insufficient and may prevent both leaders and followers from achieving their

Maslow's motivation theory
. Abraham Maslow argued that humans are motivated by five essential needs. He formed a pyramid demonstrating these needs which he called the 'hierarchy of needs'.

At the bottom of the pyramid are basic needs, those that motivate people to work food and shelter. Once these needs are met through pay, individuals want safety and security through, for example, good job conditions. Social needs refer to the need to belong, to be part of a group. Self-esteem may arise from a promotion. Right at the top is Self fulfilment - the area for creativity, challenge and interest. Maslow suggested that achieving one level motivates us to achieve the next.

Herzberg theory of motivation
Frederick Herzberg (1923-) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygienefactors)
Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are:
Job enlargement – workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily more challenging) which should make the work more interesting.
Job enrichment - involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement.
Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas of their working life.

Both use a hierarchical scale..where one stage must first be fully or largely completed before advancing to the next stage.
• Both are based on the argument that "we behave as we do because we are attempting to fulfill internal needs." (Bartol et al., 2005) i.e. needs theory
• They both specify the criteria as to what motivates people. However, this is controversial because entrepenuers and people from different cultures have different values and norms, and therefore have different criteria or have criteria which are percieved as more important e.g. Greek and Japanese employees stated that safety and physiological needs are more important to them, where as employees from Norway and Sweden saw belongingness needs as being more important.
• Herzberg's hygiene idea corresponds with Manslow's Physiological, Safety and Belongingness needs i.e. they both have the same critieria (basic pay, work conditions etc...)
• Also, Herzberg's motivators idea corresponds with Manslow's Esteem and Self-Actualisation needs i.e. they both have the same criteria (recognition, growth, achievement etc...).
• Both theories are influenced by environmental conditions, employee attitudes and as a result, their motivation. These influence an employees performance.

How maslow's theory can be used by managers
You can’t be a leader without followers so you have to understand how to motivate people to buy into your agenda. Motivation is what makes employees act in certain ways so how can you achieve this? Understanding people’s motives – their reasons for doing something is the key to becoming a good leader.
Leaders and managers need to have this level of understanding if they are to be in a position to motivate their staff. However to be a good leader and manager you need to recognise that people are different. To display the traits of a good leader you need to recognise that some people come to work to earn money (existence needs) and have no desire either to get on with others (relatedness needs), or earn promotion (growth needs). Others work to meet people and have a personal challenge and sense of achievement ( relatedness needs). Others work to gain experience to get promotion (growth needs). For others it maybe a combination of these.
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