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Transcript of Cool Jazz
During the World War 2, one of the most popular styles of jazz was Bebop.
Bebop was characterized by fast tempos, scatting, and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody.
One of the most popular musicians
in the 1940's was a saxophone
player Charlie Parker (August 29,
1920 – March 12, 1955). He was a
highly influential jazz soloist and a leading
figure in the development of Bebop. History before Cool Jazz Miles Davis Miles Davis was a trumpet player that was from Alton, Illinois .
His father was very educated and provided a good life for Miles.
When Davis arrived in New York, he experienced the new lifestyle and the new jazz that was in its experimental stage (Bebop).He quickly adapted to the new style and enrolled in Juilliard School of Music.
During his study at Juilliard, Davis formed a jazz group and wanted to experiment in the field of jazz.
He wanted to develop a alternative style to Bebop. His goal was to escape Charlie Parker's overpowering style and allow his own sensitive side to be heard.
"I wanted the instruments to sound like human voices, and they did." - Miles Davis (May 25, 1926 – September 28, 1991) Miles Davis & Gil Evans Both Miles Davis and Gil Evans were open to experimenting the new style of jazz. That is what brought them together.
They met when Evans heard Charlie Parker play one of Davis's tunes.
Their partnership worked very well because Evans knew what instruments to use to get the voicing that Davis wanted. "Moon Dreams" - Miles Davis "Hot house" - Charlie Parker &
Dizzy Gillespie The record that Miles Davis and Gil Evans were working on was called "Birth of the Cool". Officially it was Davis's recording and Evans arranged it.
In this recording, Davis brought his new ideas to life.
His new developed style, "Cool Jazz", had characteristics of: relaxed tempo, use of nontraditional jazz harmonies, European techniques such as counterpoint, unique approach to improvising, emphasizing sound, melody and melodic phrases. It was soothing for the listeners while Bebop made their feet tap the upbeat rhythm. "Time After Time"
(Belgium 1964) - Chet Baker (December 23, 1929 – May 13, 1988) Chet Baker was a trumpet player from Oklahoma.
As a child, Baker has been through a major depression. Whenever he sang or played, it seemed he "squeezed every ounce of emotion out of every note". His performing seemed to mirror his life.
When he was a teenager, Baker lost a tooth while playing the trumpet on the streets. This made him limited to certain things such as being able to play high register arabesques (fanciful musical piece). However, he did not let that get in his way, instead he focused on the middle ranged melodic inventions.
His recording with Mulligan "My funny Valentine" pushed him into instant fame.
He was one of the most recorded trumpeters in the jazz world.
Baker was mostly famous for his lyrical improvisation in the history of jazz. Gerry Mulligan (April 6, 1927 – January 20, 1996) Gerry Mulligan is primarily known as one of the leading baritone saxophonists in jazz history.
He was known for playing the instrument with a light and airy tone in the era of Cool Jazz.
Mulligan worked with many musicians including Miles Davis.
He had a pianoless quartet in which he had Chet Baker as the trumpeter.
It is still regarded as one of the more important Cool Jazz groups. "My Funny Valentine" - Gerry Mulligan Quartet Stan Getz (February 2, 1927 – June 6, 1991) Stanley Getz was a tenor saxophone player.
Getz was known as "The Sound" because of his warm, vibrato-less,lyrical tone. He even managed to keep the lyrical tone on very fast tempos.
His improvised solo in "Early Autumn" made him known as the major improvisers of his era.
He made Herman Woody's band famous by the release of "The Four Brothers". "Early Autumn" - Woody Herman Orchestra featuring Stan Getz Lennie Tristano (March 19,1919 – November 18,1978) Leonard Joseph Tristano was a pianist and a teacher of improvisation.
He is credited for developing "linear" approach which is widely used as more sophisticated technique in jazz history.
Tristano was the founder of the first school of jazz in NYC in 1951.
"Tristano School of Jazz" taught every student how to master each style of jazz and its specific techniques such as linear approach, block-chording, improvisation, and rhythmic variation. (November 25, 1924 – May 30, 1977) Paul Desmond was a composer and an alto saxophone player which got famous by the Dave Brubeck's Quartet.
His instant fame came about after Brubeck's Quartet released the recording "Take Five" which he composed.
He helped to popularize the soprano saxophone.
Mostly known for his alto styling which reminded listeners of Benny Carter's soft approach to sound.
Desmond was one of the few identifiable players along Miles Davis in the 1950's.