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The Lasting Effects of Contact in Sudan

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Kyra Bird

on 10 November 2012

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Transcript of The Lasting Effects of Contact in Sudan

The Lasting Effects of Contact in Sudan 1881- 1885
Revolt against the Turco-Egyptian administration

The Turco-Egyptian colonial rule over Sudan lasted from 1820-1885, Muhammad 'Ali was the leader of the rule in Sudan. He wanted to obtain black slaves to create a new army. He was also looking to find a new source of revenue to finance his projects in Egypt. Under this colonial rule, many Sudanese natives lived in poverty because they were heavily taxed. They were also forced to work as slaves as the Egyptians exploited their resources. This was clearly an example of imperialism, as Egyptians gave nothing in return to the Sudanese people.
(www.bbc.co.uk and patachu.com) 1899-1955
Sudan is under joint British-Egyptian rule

In the Anglo-Egyptian rule, Sudan was considered to be primarily run by Britain. Egypt was considered merely as a power who approved Britain's proposals. At the time, Britain was very powerful and attempting to control half of the world. This fact meant that they could not fully occupy Sudan. Britain wanted North and South Sudan to distrust and turn against each other instead of turning against the colonial powers running them. The main plan was to eventually attach South Sudan to colonial British East Africa, instead of reuniting it with North Sudan. This plan never happened and even though having British rule kept the Sudanese from being exploited, the South citizens were not allowed to progress. An example of this separation was the way Britain promoted religion in each part of the country. In the North, Islamic was promoted and encouraged while in the South, Christian missionaries made sure that Islamic was prevented at every cost. When North and South Sudan eventually came together, these cultural differences added to tension.
(bbc.co.uk and www.sudantribune.com) 1956-1972

In 1956, Sudan became independent from its European colonial powers.
In 1962/63 The first Sudanese civil war began, led by the Anya-Nya movement which acted against northern dominated Sudanese government. They fought against how Northern dominance hadn't changed since independence. It was mainly a fight about the marginalization of the South.
(www.africanhistory.about.com, www.bbc.co.uk and en.wikipedia.org) How these events affected Sudan- My response

The fact that Britain and Egypt had split up Sudan into the North and South insured that even after the colonial powers had left their country, Sudan was bound to face conflict for many years to come. The Arabs in the North and black Africans in the South had been split up for so long, by British design. The black Africans were less advanced then the Arabs so they weren't properly prepared for coming together.

"Following independence, the British, who ruled Sudan together with their Egyptian counterpart, handed over power to the Arabs in the north on their departure. The Declaration of Independence by the British and the consequent unification of the North and South caught the African peoples in the South by surprise. " -Thiep Angui, a "Lost Boy of Sudan"
(Perspectives on Globalization, textbook) 1978-1983

In 1978, Oil is discovered by Chevron Oil in the South Sudan town of Bentiu. This oil would increase tension between Arabs and black Africans. Natural resources like oil became factors in the second civil war in Sudan. The Arab's desire to control resources and the black African's ambition to keep what was rightfully theirs continued conflict.
(www.crawfurd.dk, en.wikipedia.org, and sudanupdate.org) 1998

The US government launched a missile attack on a plant in Khartuom. The government of America believed they were destroying Osama bin Laden's 'chemical weapons' factory but had not actually collected evidence to confirm what they believed. It was discovered afterward that the factory only made pharmaceuticals. The attack didn't kill anyone on site but Sudan citizens had to go without the medicine they needed. Sudan made a proposal that the United Nations should investigate what the US did, but that was vetoed by America. Sudan is still considered to be on America's list of states sponsoring terrorism.
(www.guardian.co.uk, www.bbc.co.uk) How these events affected Sudan- My response

Many black Africans in the South were confused when the Closed Door Policy was lifted. This meant the Arabs and the Africans did not know how to properly share resources for mutual benefit. With conflict growing, resources became part of the main arguments between the two.

America's decision to attack Khartoum without evidence most likely made both North and South Sudan feel as if once again they were being attacked by outside powers. Likely this convinced them that they could not depend on other nations and instead needed to be self-sufficient. Moving forward, this would affect the way they worked with other countries. The fact America was allowed to veto their calls for an investigation may also have convinced Sudan that they could not properly depend on other countries. 2002
The Sudanese government and Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Association sign landmark ceasefire agreement. Talks in Kenya lead to a breakthrough.

This first ceasefire agreement was applied to the Central Nuba Mountains which was key rebel stronghold throughout the second civil war.

Both the ceasefire agreement and breakthrough in Kenya led to the Machakos Protocol which was agreed upon. This would allow South Sudan to seek self-determination and self-government.
(www.bbc.co.uk and en.wikipedia.org) 2003-2004
Rebels rise up in Darfur. UN claims Sudan is not properly dealing with Darfur issues and should receive outside help.

Rebels in Darfur rose up, claiming that the region was being ignored by the government in Khartoum, Sudan.

The UN claims that Sudan has not correctly dealt with the uprisings in Darfur and that they should allow outside help to assist them in dealing with the situation. Pro-army governments must go.

The US secretary of State describes the killings in Darfur as a genocide by the government. The UN has the death total of Darfur (at the time) at 300,00 people, while Sudan only claims that 10,000 lives have been lost.
(www.bbc.co.uk and www.globalsecutriy.org) 2005
The Sudanese government and the southern rebels sign a peace deal.

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the government and rebels included a permanent ceasefire. This ended more than 21 years of civil war. Two million deaths were blamed on the second civil war to occur in Sudan.

The UN was pleased with the agreement but still came out to say that they blames the government for the situation in Darfur but would not call it a genocide like the US secretary did.
(www.bbc.co.uk, www.un.org, www.articles.cnn.com, 2011-2012
South Sudan gains independence. UN reports displacement numbers.

In 2011, 98.83% of South Sudanese people voted to become independent from North Sudan. South Sudan was then changed into the Republic of South Sudan. It also became the 193rd member state of the United Nations. Abyei still remains undisputed and needs to decide if it wants to be a part of North of South Sudan.

In August of 2012, the UN reported that some 655,00 people were displaced or severely affected by the civil war the occurred between the Sudanese government and Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Association.
(www.bbc.co.uk and en.wikipedia.org) How these events affected Sudan- My response

The first ceasefire was critical in the process of ending the civil war and improving relationships between the Arab people and the black Africans.

The uprisings in Darfur probably set back a total peace agreement.

Also, having the UN tell them they weren't dealing with the situation correctly probably didn't resonate with the Sudanese government because they already felt tension with outside sources trying to meddle in their business. How these events affected Sudan- My response

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the government was a major moment in the progress of Sudan. Even though there was still tension and problems, the agreement was a step towards peace in the country.

South Sudan's independence is important in finally breaking away from the affects of colonization. There is still tension over the sharing of resources now that South Sudan is independent.

From the numbers that the UN reported, it is easy to see that the effects of contact changed the country of Sudan forever. Tensions felt after colonization led to two civil wars and many lives lost.
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